General Certificate of Education
Advanced Subsidiary Examination
Thursday 24 January 2013
9.00 am to 11.00 am
For this paper you must have:
an AQA 12-page answer book.
Use black ink or black ball-point pen.
Write the information required on the front of your answer book. The Examining Body for this paper is AQA. The Paper Reference is SCLY2.
This paper is divided into two sections.
Choose one section and answer all the questions in that section. Do not answer questions from more than one section.
Do all rough work in your answer book. Cross through any work you do not want to be marked. Information
The marks for questions are shown in brackets.
The maximum mark for this paper is 90.
Questions carrying 12 marks or more should be answered in continuous prose. In these questions you will be marked on your ability to:
– use good English
– organise information clearly
– use specialist vocabulary where appropriate.
Choose either Section A or Section B and answer all the questions in that section. Section A: Education with Research Methods
You are advised to spend approximately 50 minutes on questions
You are advised to spend approximately 30 minutes on question You are advised to spend approximately 40 minutes on questions
Total for this section: 90 marks
Read Item A below and answer questions
According to some sociologists, the main function of the education system is to reproduce and legitimise social inequalities. For example, they argue that schools systematically fail the majority of working-class pupils, whose destiny is to end up in the same kind of working-class jobs as their parents. This reproduces the class structure from one generation to the next. The education system then legitimises these inequalities by claiming that every pupil has an equal chance to succeed. However, some critics argue that schooling is in fact meritocratic and that failure is the fault of the individual, not of the education system.
Explain what is meant by the term ‘labelling’.
Suggest three examples of ways in which school is organised that may be ethnocentric. (6 marks)
Outline some of the factors within the education system that may have contributed to improvements in girls’ achievement.
Using material from Item A and elsewhere, assess the view that the main function of the education system is to reproduce and legitimise social inequalities. (20 marks)
Methods in Context
The following question requires you to apply your knowledge and understanding of sociological research methods to the study of this particular issue in education. Read Item B below and answer the question that follows.
Investigating the role of linguistic deprivation in educational underachievement Linguistic deprivation is a lack of the language skills needed for educational success; some sociologists see it as resulting from inadequate socialisation. They regard it as the main cause of underachievement among the working class and some ethnic minorities, who often have negative feelings about education. However, critics argue that this view unfairly blames the pupils for their own educational failure, rather than the school and its middle-class values.
Some sociologists may use self-completion written questionnaires to investigate the role of linguistic deprivation in underachievement. These can allow respondents to answer anonymously questions about issues such as family life or their experience of education. Pupils may take questionnaires for completion at home, which removes the need for respondents to interact with middle-class researchers....
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