E2-Describe how indoor and outdoor environments can be made safe, reassuring and stimulating
By keeping to the adult to child ratio (1:3) and constantly supervising them, both indoor and outdoor environments can be safe for babies. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome is something that practitioners must be aware of when babies are sleeping and should check on the babies every 5 minutes while under supervision. To reduce SIDS babies should be placed at the bottom of the cot with a maximum of two blankets. .Risk assessments should also be made for both inside and outside play. "It is important that the environment children are playing in is regularly checked, before and during activities." Tassoni et al 2007 page 193 Practitioners must make sure they follow the correct policies and procedures and make sure all gates are locked to keep the children safe from possible threats. The indoor environment can be reassuring by having a key person in which the baby will form a bond with. The key person can ensure that the baby will have a routine that tailors for the individual needs by working with the parents. The baby can also be reassured with a comforter, a much loved object from home, being brought into the setting to help them feel more 'at home' and settled. The environments can be made stimulating by having a range of activities to promote different areas of development, for example, a treasure basket which will contain different natural items inside to promote the use of senses. Visual displays and posters can be put low down so that babies can look and investigate them. Whilst outside the practitioner can take the babies out on walks to see nature or just a stroll around the town, in my current setting we take the babies on walks as our environment is quite colourful. A trip to the park is also good as it provides opportunities for those who walk early to be able to run and explore.
E3-Describe the expected stage of development of babies at 7 months and how they can be expected to develop in the next 2 months of life. I have chosen 7 months as this is a busy time in development for babies, for example this is when a baby may be able to sit unaided for a short period of time whereas at 9 months the baby could sit unsupported for 10 minutes as their gross motor skills has developed more which has improve their balance. At 7 months the baby will have recently mastered how to swap objects in their hands "can move a toy from one hand to another." Tassoni. P 2007 page40. whereas at 9 months the baby will bee attempting to use the pincer grip. as their fine motor skills have progressed as the child "can deliberately release objects by dropping them." Tassoni wt al 2007 page41. At 7 months babies pay attention to objects within their visual field, this progresses at 9 months to watching an object fall, for example building blocks, this is known as object permanence and is a result of their intellectual development. Language development is also improved drastically within this range: from babbling in tune at 7 months to repetition and imitation at 9 months. "babbles and starts to understand words such as 'bye-bye' and 'no'." Tassoni et al page 570.
E4 -Explain how 2 different play activities/experiences can support the overall development of the baby described in E3. An activity which supports overall development of a 7 month old is musical instruments is the use of musical instruments, for example a drum, xylophone, rattle or bells. the babies sensory skills as a whole will be used and further developed from physically shaking the rattle, hearing the sound and seeing the colours of the instrument. The fine motor skills will also develop in different ways depending on the instrument, for example beating the drum or shaking the rattle, alongside developing concentration and hand-eye co-ordination. Musical instruments can also be used to extend and bring out the babies language as they may babble along with the music or repeat certain words. This type of activity can help with emotional development as a child could feel frustrated or agitated and being able to just make sounds with instruments can calm them down as they beat in tune. "Music is the transition of sharing ones emotions of any age to any person." Loosely translated from Japanese from an interview of One OK Rock's lead singer Morita Takahiro . This also aids their social development as they play along and bond with the practitioner or parent. "Music is an easy way for parents to relate to their children. When an infant hears you sing to them, you are connecting with them, and they are connecting to you." http://www.halilit.co.uko.uk/hal_playsound.html
Playing with building blocks is another fun activity that supports babies development. Building blocks helps the 7 month old start the process of learning the pincer grip by developing its fine motor skills by picking the blocks up also aiding the gross motor skills by moving around their arms gradually getting quicker. The baby will also start to develop the skills and strength to sit unaided for longer gaining better balance while playing. other benefit from this activity is better hand-eye co-ordination with carefully placing the blocks on top of each other and colour recognition. The baby may babble while playing with the adult in which furthering their language skills.
E5- Describe the role of the practitioner in meeting the particular needs of babies in a group care setting.
The practitioners role in meeting particular needs is demonstrated and performed in different ways, for example welcoming the parents and the baby to the setting. The practitioner needs to build trust with the parents and in turn will make the baby feel more at ease seeing their parents engage with the practitioner. The practitioner will plan the daily routine to cater for individual needs of all the babies such as likes and dislikes or any special requirements for the babies such as dietary needs. "In people with coeliac disease this immune reaction is triggered by gluten..." www.coeliac.org.uk/coeliac-disease The care routine will cater to the babies, physical, intellectual, social and emotional development therefore before planning the practitioner needs to assess each babies individual needs. It is also important for the key worker to give one to one attention to the baby, as they will form a bond which will make the baby feel secure. The practitioner must also keep accurate records whilst there is a high level of supervision. They must also provide a safe stimulating environment by selecting suitable resources.
E6 - Show how the child protection policies and procedures in the setting protect and safeguard the babies.
There are many policies and procedures that protect and safeguard babies, for example can help identify any area's the baby needs help with. These observations must also be kept secure on a password protected computer or in a locked cupboard due to the Data Protection Act 1998. Keeping these records secure is a policy that is not only backed by legislation but is important to safeguard babies as these records have personal information on the baby and its family. This would also tie in to the settings confidentiality policy as only the practitioners involved and parents have the right to access these files. " This act is concerned with the protection of personal information." Tassoni et al page 224 The Every Child Matters initiative brought from the Children Act 2004 has brought in the need of a delegated Safeguarding officer which any signs of abuse on a baby would be reported to as the baby itself cannot talk nor know what is happening to them. This policy is put in place to elect the member of staff mediately to prevent or stop child abuse from taking place. Their would be a policy in place to recruit staff safely so the parents, other members of staff and babies are not harmed and feel safe. " When they first join a setting they should undergo a CRB check. It is important that all staff read the child protection policies and procedures of the setting." Tassoni et al 2007 page 128 "adult to child ratio in rooms, the qualification levels of staff." Tassoni. et al 2007 page 117 There would also be a policy in place of which the staff are at the correct staff to baby ration of 1:3 to ensure the babies are thoroughly looked after and to be kept safe from accidents.
E7 & D1- Explain the importance of well-planned care routines and the key worker system & Consider how care routines can enhance the overall development of babies from birth to 12 months
Babies need well planned care routines to meet their individual needs, it is important as it promotes security and stability for the baby. An example of this is a well planned feeding routine that caters to all the babies needs that will make sure they get the right type and amount of milk throughout the day and keeping with the routine from home. This routine can help the child develop in multiple ways, such as their fine motor skills when gripping the bottle or simply sitting in a high chair developing their posture. This will also stimulate the muscles in the mouth and around the jaw which helps with the transition to solids and also aids speech, emotionally this helps with independence and will give the baby the confidence to hold the bottle themselves to feed. The adult will be able to talk to the baby whilst sitting in front of the high chair aiding the child’s social skills. once the transition to solids take place the child may improve their senses as they are able to touch, see, taste and smell the food, aiding this is the cold spaghetti activity. The babies bathing routine, if the setting requires this, should be also planned efficiently. It is important as it requires one to one time with the adult, this helps the baby feel secure. Bathing will also help the baby emotionally as it is a good experience in which the baby can relax in the warm water and calm down alongside this adding toys into the bath adds both fine motor and gross motor development as the baby tries to grasp the slippery toy whilst kicking their legs with joy. Social development will also improve as the adult would sing and talk to the baby, asking questions to stimulate the babies intellectual development, these questions could benefit the sensory skills such as asking the baby to "touch the red fish". Nappy changing is another routine which must be well planned. The baby's physical development will increase as they are able to kick their legs. This will also help prevent nappy rash as they are not wearing a nappy. Intellectually they will develop as they are learning opportunities, for example when the adult asks them questions. There will be opportunities to express their emotions which will help their emotional development. This also allows them to be aware of their care routine. Socially they will develop as they have a one on one with their key person. The key person can sing to the baby which will help language development. The key person works closely with a baby to build an attachment and a close relationship with their parents. They have many responsibilities, for instance settling the baby in the setting and observing and assessing their development. Also "helping to ensure that the care of the child meets with the parents' wishes." Tassoni. et al 2007 page 219 This can benefit the babies in early years settings as the baby will be able to feel safe and secure. This means that they may be able to have a stable development. The key person has partnership with parents, which means that the parents can trust and respect them, which will ensure the care routine is planned effectively. They can also find out the individual needs of the baby, and meet the parent's needs.
C1 -Discuss the importance of an environment that is safe, reassuring and stimulating
It is important for the environment to be safe as it is a government and legal requirement. This is because the Childcare Act 2006 affects the "adult to child ratio in rooms, the qualification levels of staff." Tassoni. et al 2007 page 117 These are embedded in the Early Years Foundation Stage Curriculum. A safe environment is also necessary to prevent babies from having accidents and coming into harm. The parents will feel reassured if they feel their baby is in a safe environment which in turn the baby will continue attending the setting. It will also help the baby's development, as they will have the opportunities to learn. If not the baby may not develop skills such as fine and gross. A reassuring environment will make the baby feel secure and settled and as a result the babies self-esteem, self-worth and confidence will grow. The babies social and emotional health will develop higher and will reassure the parents. The child will form a great attachment with the key person which will help plan around the babies for activities so that their individual needs will have been met. Having a stimulating environment is important as the baby will be able to develop a variety of skills. They will be able to increase their sensory development by having activities such as treasury baskets and water play. They will feel motivated and will want to explore different outcomes from activities. A stimulating environment can be challenging which will encourage the baby's progression and learning and promote overall development.
B1 - Evaluate the role of the practitioner in promoting an inclusive approach when working with babies and their families.
When working with babies and their families, practitioners should promote an inclusive approach. "To include someone means making them feel a part if what is happening." Tassoni et al 2007 page 8 Through this the practitioner will take into consideration the baby's individual needs, for example if the baby needs more time to settle in then the practitioner should accommodate this. It is important that the practitioner practices this way as the parents will feel valued and that the needs of their child are being met, it is the practitioners job to make sure the parents wishes are being met, for inclusive practice, the practitioner needs information on how to provide such an aspect, therefore, staff can go on training courses to refresh or retrain to provide an inclusive environment. It is essential for the practitioner to be up to date with current legislation to make sure their practice is effective, for example a new child joins the setting with a disability, you could take a course on how to provide and include the child within the setting. The practitioner can also review their policies and procedures handbook and review the inclusive policy, this ensures that the practitioner can include all babies into activities no matter what gender, race, religion or disability the child has. The united Nations Convention on the Rights of the child has many articles on inclusivity in which the practitioner can revise: "Article 3: The right to be protected from all forms of discrimination." Tassoni et al 2007 page 115 The practitioner can also make sure there is an inclusive approach, by using a selection of resources which promote positive images and diversity. These can include posters of children sharing and books on diverse cultures and faiths. From this, the children will learn to respect other beliefs. They must also challenge and respond to poor practice. For instance, if the practitioner observes a child who is being left out or discriminated then they should intervene and stop it. This will make sure all children are included. However this may be difficult, if the practitioner does not see it, as it may happen when the children are playing quietly. By reflecting the practitioner can make sure that every child is included. This is because they can look back on an activity and see if anyone did not participate and why they didn't. However this may be hard for the practitioner if they do not know how to reflect. This means that they should go on training courses and find out new information from peer observations. The practitioner should also use positive language and not stereotype. This will make the children feel welcome and included. However this may be difficult if the practitioner does not have respect. It is so important, that the practitioner has partnership with parents. This is because they can find out the babies individual needs, which the practitioner can take into consideration when planning activities.
A -Reflect on the influence of theoretical perspectives of development and attachment on current practice in settings working with babies under 1 year of age.
There are many theorists that influence the current practice of working with babies and their attachments, for example Mary Ainsworth and John Bowlby who believed "Attachment is an emotional bond to another person." www.psychology.about.com
John Bowlby (1907-1990) believed that babies needed a strong, stable relationship with their primary carer, mainly being the mother. He also believed that the baby will find it hard later on in life to develop positive relationships with others if the baby doesn’t form a positive relationship with the primary carer. He found that babies cried and tried to escape when separated form the main carers, this was later branded and expanded by Ainsworth as 'separation anxiety'. The child is distraught by the absence of their main carer and then calms and shows a more comfortable behaviour once the carer returns. This also shows the strength and type of attachment the baby shares with the primary carer. There are 3 types of attachment according to Bowlby: secure, resistant and avoident. These forms of attachment where found in Ainsworths study called the Strange Situation. This study observed the behaviour of babies between 12 and 18 months of stages where they where left alone with a stranger or completely alone. Ainsworth found that the secure attachment type would be very distressed at the absence of the parent whereas the resistant attachment would show intense levels of distress and the avoident type would be fine, unfazed by the strangers attention or mothers absence. Ainsworth's theory influenced practice as practitioners now encourage parents to bring babies into the setting as soon as possible so that the baby can bond with its key worker and so that the baby will not be upset that its primary carer has left. The recognition of attachment has helped practice in many ways, such as the key worker being the second carer of the child while the parents work. The key worker will form a bond with the child and have better opportunities in finding out the child’s needs from the parents, some settings send the key worker out the the babies house before coming to the setting so that the child recognises the practitioner. The key worker, through developing this bond with baby and parents, can inform the staff of any new information that concerns the baby. This key worker gives the child a sense of security when around him/her as they have someone to go to in the future if they need anything. The key worker will bond with the child throughout the day through the routines of the setting, even nappy changing.
There should also be another person that the child is quite attached to, but not the key worker. The baby will need they will need an additional person who they can feel comfortable with as they key worker may not work 5 days a week, in this case, there would be a second key worker or co-worker in which is a main part of the babies stay at nursery. The key worker is effective, because they empower the baby, as they have made a bond with them, which makes the child confident.
Piaget 1896-1980 identified the different stages of development. He said that children moved through the sensory motor stage (0-2 years), pre operational stage (2-7 years). He used the expression 'Schema' to state a child’s thought process, " - Assimilation.
-accommodation." Tassoni et al page 66
he felt that the schema would change as soon as contradicting information came in, for example: - " 'Every day he lady in nursery is waiting for me in the room.' - 'I am in the shop but I see the lady from the nursery. what is she doing here because she is always at the nursery?' - 'the lady at nursery doesn’t stay there all the time.' ." Tassoni et al page 66 During the sensory motor stage he said
"The child develops physical schemas as he/she gains control of his/her movements." Tassoni et al 2007 page 67 Throughout the pre-operational stage the
"Children begin to use symbols to stand for things, for example a piece of dough represents a cake." Tassoni et al 2007 page 67
"Bruner also observes that the process of constructing knowledge of the world is not done in isolation but rather within a social context." Meggit 2006 page 56
He argued that children should need things such as books and interest tables. He is known for 'scaffolding' which is when adults help the children's development in a way that best suits the child.
* Bruce. T, Meggit C (1999) Child care and education 2nd edition , London , Hodder and Stoughton
* Meggit. C (2006) Child development , An illustrated guide , Heinemann, London
* Tassoni. P (2007) Child care and education 4th edition , London, Heinemann