The social model of disability says that disability is caused by the way society is organised, rather than by a person’s impairment or difference. It looks at ways of removing barriers that restrict life choices for disabled people. When barriers are removed, disabled people can be independent and equal in society, with choice and control over their own lives. Disabled people developed the social model of disability because the traditional medical model did not explain their personal experience of disability or help to develop more inclusive ways of living. An Impairment is defined as long-term limitation of a person’s physical, mental or sensory function. Changing attitudes to disabled people
Barriers are not just physical. Attitudes found in society based on prejudice or stereotype, or diabolism, also disable people from having equal opportunities to be part of society. Medical model of disability
The social model of disability says that disability is caused by the way society is organised. The medical model of disability says people are disabled by their impairments or differences. Under the medical model, these impairments or differences should be 'fixed' or changed by medical and other treatments, even when the impairment or difference does not cause pain or illness. The medical model looks at what is 'wrong' with the person, not what the person needs. It creates low expectations and leads to people losing independence, choice and control in their own lives.
Many children have learning difficulties, but the important thing is that •the learning difficulty must be significantly greater than the majority of others of the same age. •the disability prevents or hinders him/her from making use of the facilities provided for other children SEN children should be educated in a mainstream school provided •he/she is being provided with the educational provision he/she needs •it will not interfere with the education of others
•there is efficient use of resources
The Board of Governors should
•make sure that all SEN pupils receive the education they need •make sure all those who are likely to teach him/her should be aware of his/her needs •ensure that teachers are aware of the importance of identifying and providing for SEN pupils.
A child in a mainstream school should be taking part in the activities of the school (i.e. The National Curriculum) alongside those who don’t have special needs. This is provided it is consistent with his learning needs, the efficient use of resources and that it doesn’t interfere with the education of others) In the annual report each school should include information about the arrangements for the admission of disabled pupils, the steps taken to prevent them being treated less favourably than others, and any access facilities provided. Local authorities have the right to assess a child if they feel there may be a need for a statement in order to provide the appropriate educational provision. If a statement is made it will give details of the assessment and specify how the needs are to be met. It will also specify the type of school which would be appropriate for the child and unless the parents do so themselves, will make arrangements to place the child. Statements must be reviewed by the local education authority annually. Some children experience difficulties in school, ranging from problems with concentration, learning, language, and perception to problems with behaviour and/or making and keeping friends. These difficulties may be due to one or more of the following: •physical disorders,
•learning disorders (or disabilities).
Children with such special needs are usually entitled to receive additional services or accommodations through the public schools. Federal law mandates that every child receive a free and appropriate education in the least restrictive environment possible. To support their ability to learn in school, three Federal laws apply specifically to children with special needs: •The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) (1975) •Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973
•The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) (1990).
Different states have different criteria for eligibility, services available, and procedures for implementing these laws. It is important for parents to be aware of these laws and related regulations in their particular area.
Children with special needs are entitled rights to services in school under federal and state laws. Parents should always advocate for their child and must be proactive and take necessary steps to make sure their child receives appropriate services. The process can be confusing and intimidating for parents. Here are some tips: •Parents should request copies of their school district's Section 504 plan. This is especially important when a school district refuses services.
Involves children attending more than one setting, usually on different days of the week, when this is thought to be the best way of meeting their educational needs. Individual arrangements will be made for each child.
A child in a wheelchair laughing with another child Education by parents at home This may be provided by the local authority (LA) in exceptional circumstances. This is a parental choice, as it is for all children. If the child has a statement of special educational needs, the LA must be satisfied that the child's special educational needs are being met. Mainstream schools
Local schools serving children with and without disabilities. Which support 1 to 1 with the children. Holistic approach and specialist units within the setting. The advantages of being in a mainstream school is it’s a broader range of abilities you’re not limited to only special needs development which gives you a better chance of more qualifications such as a level (six form) the disadvantages may be that there’s a risk of bullying, may not be able to meet their needs/ not the right individual care. Also no funding or the right equipment. Maintained (state) schools
These are run by LAs.
Non-maintained (independent) schools
Independent schools require LAs or parents to pay fees for the child's education. Many non-maintained special schools are run by charities. Out-county placement
An out-county placement is when a child attends a school not run by their LA - either a non-maintained school or a school run by another LA. In either case, the child's own LA must pay the fees. Residential schools
These provide accommodation for children during the school week or also at weekends. LAs are most likely to agree to fund residential provision if children have severe or multiple special educational needs that cannot be met by day provision and support from other agencies. In some cases (for example, for children looked after by the local authority) placements may be funded jointly by the LA and health or social services. Special schools
Normally only for children with statements of special educational needs, although sometimes children may be admitted before the statement is complete. Most are for children with particular types of disability. Increasingly, they act as resource centres supporting mainstream schools. Specialist units
These units for children who are multi-sensory impaired are attached to mainstream or (usually) special schools. Children may spend all of their time in classes within the unit, or spend part of their time in other classes within the school, usually with support. Children with special educational needs and disabilities
Additional help is available for parents and children with special educational needs and disabilities. •Read our guide to special educational needs and disability (PDF, 484kb) and find out what help and support local authorities, schools and colleges must make available to children and young people. •Caring for a child with complex needs describes the support available for parents whose child has been diagnosed with a long-term condition. •Tips for caring for a disabled child includes practical advice about everyday hands-on caring, such as feeding, going to the bathroom and moving around. •Find out about benefits for the person you care for, including information about disability benefits and allowances.
Child development refers to the process in which children go through changes in skill development during predictable time periods, called developmental milestones. Developmental delay occurs when children have not reached these milestones by the expected time period. For example, if the normal range for learning to walk is between 9 and 15 months, and a 20-month-old child has still not begun walking, this would be considered a developmental delay. Developmental delays can occur in all five areas of development or may just happen in one or more of those areas (to read about the five areas of development, click here). Additionally, growth in each area of development is related to growth in the other areas. So if there is a difficulty in one area (e.g., speech and language), it is likely to influence development in other areas (e.g., social and emotional). Risk factors for developmental problems fall into two categories: •Genetic
Children are placed at genetic risk by being born with a genetic or chromosomal abnormality. A good example of a genetic risk is Down syndrome, a disorder that causes developmental delay because of an abnormal chromosome. Environmental risk results from exposure to harmful agents either before or after birth, and can include things like poor maternal nutrition or exposure to toxins (e.g. lead or drugs) or infections that are passed from a mother to her baby during pregnancy (e.g., measles or HIV). Environmental risk also includes a child's life experiences. For example, children who are born prematurely, face severe poverty, mother's depression, poor nutrition, or lack of care are at increased risk for developmental delays. Risk factors have a cumulative impact upon development. As the number of risk factors increases, a child is put at greater risk for developmental delay. Some warning signs that children my display when developing, developmental delay. Behavioural Warning Signs:
◦Avoids or rarely makes eye contact with others
◦Gets unusually frustrated when trying to do simple tasks that most children of the same age can do ◦Shows aggressive behaviours and acting out and appears to be very stubborn compared with other children ◦Displays violent behaviours on a daily basis
Gross Motor Warning Signs:
◦Has stiff arms and/or legs
◦Has a floppy or limp body posture compared to other children of the same age ◦Uses one side of body more than the other
◦Has a very clumsy manner compared with other children of the same age Vision Warning Signs:
◦Turns tilts or holds head in a strained or unusual position when trying to look at an object ◦Seems to have difficulty finding or picking up small objects dropped on the floor (after the age of 12 months) ◦Has difficulty focusing or making eye contact
◦Closes one eye when trying to look at distant objects
◦Eyes appear to be crossed or turned
Hearing Warning Signs:
◦Turns body so that the same ear is always turned toward sound ◦Has difficulty understanding what has been said or following directions after once she has turned 3 years of age ◦Doesn't startle to loud noises
◦Ears appear small or deformed
◦Fails to develop sounds or words that would be appropriate at her age