1. What are the 2 major divisions of the Nervous System?
Central Nervous System and Peripheral Nervous System
2. What are the 2 major divisions of the central nervous system (CNS)?
The brain and the spinal cord
3. What are the 2 major divisions of the peripheral nervous system (PNS)?
The somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system.
4. Differentiate between the autonomic and somatic nervous systems.
The somatic nervous system is a body of peripheral nerve fibers that transport sensory information, and motor nerve fibers. The autonomic nervous system uses two neurons, and controls smooth muscle located in organs.
5. List the 3 types of neurons found in the PNS and their function.
Lis Sensory – functions as sensory receptors to CNS
Motor – functions in the connection of CNS to muscles and organs.
Interneuron – functions in the connections within CNS. The 3 types of neurons found in the PNS and their function.
6. Differentiate between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. Be sure to include at least 3 examples of responses controlled by each.
The sympathetic nervous system acts as “fight” or “flight” response, releasing adrenaline and noradrenalin increasing heart rate, blood pressure, and the blood flow to skeletal muscles. The parasympathetic nervous system functions as the “rest and digest” system. It calms the body, conserving and maintaining energy, and lowering the heartbeat, breathing rate, and blood pressure.
8. What is lateralization and how are body functions affected by it? It is when the left and right sides of the brain are separated; the left side controls the language while the right side contains math and music.
9. Describe the principle of contralateral organization.
When sensory data crosses over in pathways leading to the cortex.
10. List the 4 lobes of each hemisphere and its basic functions. Frontal: important planning and sequencing areas, Broca’s area for speech Parietal: hand-eye coordination, eye movements, and attention Occipital: contains primary visual cortex
Temporal: speech, face, word recognitions, and memory formation
11. What is the corpus callosum? What happens if it is cut?
Major pathway between hemispheres, hemispheres can’t exchange data
12. What is the conjunctiva?
Membrane which produces mucous that lubricates the eye and prevents dryness
13. List the function and location of the following structures: sclera, cornea, choroid, ciliary body, iris, lens, retina and pupil. Sclera: protects eye, shapes eye, anchors eye muscles
Cornea: transparent window for light entry, refracts light
14. Differentiate between the aqueous and vitreous humor.
The vitreous humor transmits light within the posterior segment while the aqueous humor supplies nutrients and oxygen to the cornea, lens and portions of the retina and also carries away metabolic wastes from these areas
15. Where are cones located and what purpose do they serve for vision?
16. Where are rods located and what purpose do they serve for vision? Most highly concentrated in the retina outside the macula lutea. More sensitive and function only in dim light, night and peripheral vision; images are blurry and only in shades of gray.
17. List the “basics” of the following vision abnormalities: myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism, cataracts, glaucoma, conjunctivitis, color-blindness, night-blindness, macular degeneration. Myopia: means nearsighted, eyeball is too long, distant objects focused in front of retina, image striking retina is blurred. Hyperopia: means farsighted, eyeball is too short, lens too thin or too stiff, nearby objects are focused behind retina, image striking the fovea is blurred. Astigmatism: irregular curvature in parts of the cornea or lens, causes blurry image Cararact: clouding of lens due to aging, diabetes mellitus, heavy smoking, frequent exposure to intense sunlight or congenital factors Conjunctivitis: inflammation of the conjunctiva by: bacteria, fungi, or viruses, trauma, pink eye. Glaucoma: most common cause of blindness, increasing intraocular pressure compresses retina, optic nerve, and blood vessels, late symptoms include blurred vision and halos around bright objects Color blindness: congenital lack of one or more cone types, deficit or absence of red or green cones most common, sex-linked trait, most common in males. Night blindness: impaired vision at night or in dim light situations, prolonged vitamin A deficiency. Macular degeneration: most common cause of vision loss after 65., progressive deterioration of mucula causing loss of central vision
18. How are each of the above corrected if they can be?
Myopia: concave lens or laser surgery to slightly flatten the cornea Hyperopia: convex lens
Astigmatism: specially ground lenses which compensate for the irregularity or laser surgery Cararact: lens implant
Glaucoma: canal of schlemn
Color blindness: none
Night blindness: rods degenerate
Macular degeneration: none
19. What are the functions of the maculae?
Monitors position of head in space, responds to straight-line changes in speed and direction, receptors for static equilibrium 20. What portion of the ear contains the sense organs for hearing and balance? Spiral organ of corti
21. What are the 3 functional parts of the inner ear and their function in hearing? Semicircular canals: contains receptors for rotational movements Cochlea: the place where the receptors of sound are located
Vestibule: where the waves pass through the fluid into the cochlea 22. List and describe briefly the 5 primary sensations of taste. Sour taste: caused by acid
Salty taste: elicited by ionized salts
Sweet taste: includes sugars, glycols, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, amines, esters, and some amino acids Bitter taste: long chain organic substances that contain nitrogen and alkaloids Umami taste: Japanese for delicious; is dominate in food containing L-glutamate 23. What is the mechanism for stimulation of the taste buds? For salty and sour, the receptor proteins open specific ion channels in the apical membranes of the taste cells, thereby activating the receptors. For sweet and bitter, the second messenger substances are activated and cause intracellular chemical changes that elict the taste signals 24. What are the 3 abnormalities of taste?
Ageusia, hypogeusia, and dysgeusia
25. Name the physical factors that affect the degree of the sensation of smell. -Only volatile substances that can be sniffed into the nostril can be smelled -The stimulating substances must be slightly water soluble
-Substances must be at least slightly lipid soluble
26. What are the primary sensations of smell?
27. Which of our senses is the least understood?
28. List the abnormalities of olfaction.
Anosmia, hyposmia, and dysosmia