Total: 16 marks
1. How many electrons does Mg2+ have? (1 mark) 10 electrons
2. Given that the half-life of the radioisotope carbon-14 is 5730 years, how useful do you think this isotope would be for dating bones that are over a million years old?
3. Summarize the four major types of biochemical reactions studied in this lesson. For each type give its name, a word summary of what happens during the reaction, and an example of where the reaction might be biologically important. (12 marks)
4. For the following chemical reaction: C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + energy identify
a. the substance(s) being oxidized.
b. the substance that is reduced.
Total: 17 marks
5. For each of the following four macromolecules, list their i) monomer(s). ii) functional groups. iii) linkage type. iv) primary function. Macromolecules: a) Carbohydrates b) Proteins c) Lipids d) Nucleic acids (Total 8 marks: 1⁄2 mark for each correct answer)
6. Show how a peptide bond forms between the two amino acids, glycine and valine. Draw the structural formulas for the reactants and the product. Label the functional groups and linkages present. (5 marks) Glycine + valine → ?
7. 7. Chocolate milk has been a choice for many athletes, as it is a good source of protein, carbohydrates, and lipids. Suppose you were to conduct nutrient testing on a sample of chocolate milk.
a. the tests you would perform and the reagents you would use. (2 marks)
b. the results you would expect to find. (2 marks)
Total: 17 marks
8. Explain how an enzyme catalyzes the synthesis of a large molecule from two smaller molecules. (4 marks)
9. Explain how the following environmental factors affect enzyme activity:
a. pH (2 marks)
b. Enzyme and substrate concentration (2 marks)
10. Examine the following data for three enzymes (A, B, and C). Each has been tested at a number of temperatures and pH levels to measure their activities. Based on these results, for each enzyme (A, B, and C)