Capital Budgeting is the process in which a business determines whether projects such as building, new plants or investing in a long-term venture are worth pursuing. Sometimes, a prospective project 's lifetime cash inflows and outflows are assessed in order to determine whether the returns generated meet a sufficient target benchmark (“Capital Budgeting” 2014). The most popular methods of capital budgeting is: net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), discounted cash flow (DCF) and payback period. The term "present value" in NPV refers to the fact that cash flows earned in the future are not worth as much as cash flows today. (Gad, S” nd). The payback period is done by calculating the total cost of the project and divide it by how much cash inflow you expect to receive each year; this will give you the total number of years or the payback period (Gad, S nd). The internal rate of return (IRR) is a discounted rate that is commonly used to determine how much of a return an investor can expect to realize from a particular project. The internal rate of return is the discount rate that occurs when a project is break even, or when the NPV equals 0. Here, the decision rule is simple: choose the project where the IRR is higher than the cost of financing (Gad, S nd).…
Capital investment decisions could be very complex. Several capital budget techniques available to use and numerous factors to keep in mind. For example, the time value of money may be an important factor to consider when using some of the techniques to evaluate a course of action. The payback method and unadjusted…
In early 2003, Michael, CFO of Aurora Textile Company, is deciding whether or not to install a new machine called Zinser 351 in order to save the declined sales and increase its competitive force. In deciding whether or not to invest Zinser 351, it is important to get the NPV and the payback period. To get the NPV and the payback period, we firstly need to forecast the future cash flows that the new machine will generate. We found the ten-year NPV to be $3,171,551 based on the FCFs that we forecast. Also, we use the payback period to analyze the acceptance of this project. We found that the discounted payback period is 5.69, which is less than the arbitrary cutoff point of 7.87. Based on our forecast, the company should invest in the Zinser 351 because of the positive NPV and relatively small payback period…
The Merseyside Project (MP) is a modernization program for the Merseyside Plant, one of two of Victoria Chemicals’ (VC) plants. MP can be said as a conventional cash flow project with an initial cost outlay of GBP 12 million and positive cash inflows for the next 15 years (2008-2022). Evaluation of a capital expenditure includes discounting or non-discounting methods. Victoria Chemicals (VC) uses the discounting methods, which are net present value (NPV), and internal rate of return (IRR). The discount rate used for the NPV evaluation is a nominal rate of 10%. For the hurdle rate in the IRR…
There are several basic methods of evaluating an investments that are commonly used by decision makers in both private corporations and public agencies. Each of these measures is intended to be an indicator of profit or net benefit for a project under consideration. Some of these measures indicate the size of the profit at a specific point in time; others give the rate of return per period when the capital is in use or when reinvestments of the early profits are also included. If a decision maker understands clearly the meaning of the various profit measures for a given project, there is no reason why one cannot use all of them for the restrictive purposes for which they are appropriate. With the availability of computer based analysis and commercial software, it takes only a few seconds to compute these profit measures. However, it is important to define these measures precisely.…
Paccar, a local truck manufacturer, is considering upgrading the technological capabilities of their two major lines of trucks PeterBilt and Kenworth. The decision whether to invest in this new technology is complicated by the realization that Paccar could buy the technology for an outside firm or could attempt to develop the technology in house. I apply four traditional performance measures (NPV, IRR, MIRR and Payback period) to decide whether to buy or build the technology. First of all, I use the given data to make the assumptions for both buy and build analysis. Next, I use the assumptions to calculate the after-tax cash flow. Last but not the least, I have the after-tax cash flow and I use excel to calculate the NPV, IRR, MIRR, and Payback period. From NPV perspective, both buying and building the technology are acceptable because these two projects NPV is positive. Building the technology is better than buying because NPV of building is greater than NPV of buying (21.13 VS 16.76). For IRR method, both buying and building the technology are acceptable too because these two projects IRR is greater than the WACC (8). Building the technology (IRR12.53) is better than buying the technology (IRR11.17). Comparing with Payback Period, building the technology takes 3.83 years to recover the initial outlay while buying the technology takes 3.96 years. Because building takes less time to recover the initial outlay, building is better. I also apply the modified internal rate of return (MIRR) to this analysis. The modified internal rate of return is an alternative measure of the annual rate of return on an investment that assumes you reinvest the cash flows at the required rate of return. MIRR is value neutral regarding the reinvested cash flows and is not incorporating any spurious value enhancing/destroying activity. According to MIRR approach, building the technology dominates buying the technology (10.83 VS 9.99). Based on my financial analysis, building the…
The projected cash flow benefits of both projects did not include the effects of inflation. Future cash flows were determined using a constant selling price and operating costs (real cash flows). The cash flows were then discounted using a WACC that included the impact of inflation (nominal WACC). Discuss the problem with using real cash flows and a nominal WACC when calculating a project’s Discounted Payback Period, NPV, IRR and…
This first section of this paper will provide a brief explanation on theoretical rationale for the net present value (NPV) method of investment appraisal and then compare its strengths and weaknesses to two alternative methods of investment appraisal, those of internal rate of return (IRR) and pay-back.…
US decision makers strongly believe in the investment of those projects which have positive cash flows. They analyze the investment decisions with the help of NPV and IRR. The decision making method has advantage that cash flows are discounted as a result the concept of time value of money is taken into consideration in order to determine the feasibility…
Delta Plc. Manufactures motorcycles. They are trying to increase profit by investing into and new project to enter a racing team for a period of four years. The company has its expectations and in order to go ahead with the investment. The cost of capital for this investment is 15percent. The company set a target accounting rate of return on investment of 15percent and a payback period of three years or less for all projects. As external consultants we will be using different m and calculations to be able to determine whether this investment is worth going for and be able to make a general recommendation to the company.…
Capital budgeting is important for a company to make decisions on investments and financing issues. However, there are various methods can be used for corporate financing, among which Net Present Value (NPV) is the best rule which can always lead to the correct choices. Except NPV, the company can also use payback period, discounted payback period method, the internal rate of return (IRR) and the profitability index (PI). The following is the analysis and comparison of NPV and these alternatives.…
There are different methods by which an investment can be evaluated. The method of choice would usually be the comparison of the Net Present Values of two investment opportunities as only the Net Present Values take into account the time value of money, the cash flow and cost of capital. Furthermore, the Net Present Value shows potential investors when they will be able to recuperate their investment. It also shows how much value is created or destroyed as a result of undertaking a project. Finally, the Net Present Value measures the attractiveness of a project in today’s pounds. This means that several projects can be combined. If a choice is given between two investment opportunities, the investment with the larger Net Present Value should be chosen.…
Time value of money Present value NPV & Discounted cash flow Simple Examples Formulae IRR…
This paper covers the implementation of three investment appraisal methods. Initially, importance of investment appraisal has been analyzed. Secondly, calculations have been done for Net present value, Payback period, Internal Rate of Return for two projects. Subsequently, selection of project has been done with assistance of results from calculations. After that, it has been discussed that how does change in cost of capital affect NPV and IRR. In addition to above, sensitivity of NPV in long run and short run has been analyzed. Finally, difference among NPV and IRR methods and their effectiveness have been discussed…
Preface Preface to the Second Edition Preface to the First Edition I 1 Corporate Finance Models Basic Financial Calculations 1.1 Overview 1.2 Present Value and Net Present Value 1.3 Internal Rate of Return and Loan Tables 1.4 Multiple Internal Rates of Return 1.5 Flat Payment Schedules 1.6 Future Values and Applications 1.7 A Pension Problem—Complicating the Future-Value Problem 1.8 Continuous Compounding 1.9 Discounting Using Dated Cash Flows Exercises Calculating the Cost of Capital 2.1 Overview 2.2 The Gordon Dividend Model 2.3 Adjusting…