Understanding child and adolescent development
Erik Erikson in 1956 researched and developed Eight stages of development. According to Erikson, the socialisation process consists of eight phases – the ‘eight stages of man’, his eight stages of man were formulated, not through experimental work, but through wide-ranging experience in psychotherapy, including extensive experience with children and adolescents from low- as well as upper- and middle – social classes. Each stage is regarded by Erikson as a ‘psychosocial crisis’, which arises and demands resolution before the next stage can be satisfactorily negotiated. These stages are conceived in almost an artilectual sense: satisfactory learning and resolution of each crisis is necessary if the child is to manage the next and subsequent one satisfactory. The eight stages by Erikson
1) Learning basic trust versus Basic Mistrust (Hope)
This is the period of infancy through the first ones or two years of life. The child well handled, nurtured,, and loved, develops trust , security and a basic optimism. Badly handled, he becomes insecure and mistrustful. 2) Learning Automy versus Shame (Will)
The second psychosocial crisis, Erikson believes, occurs during early childhood, probably between 18 months or 3 years and 3.5 to 4 years of age. The ‘well parented’ child emerges from this stage sure of himself, elated with his new found control, and proud rather than ashamed. It may also show in the early stages of psychosocial crisis, including stormy self-will, tantrums, Stubbornness and negativism.
3) Learning initiative versus Guilt (purpose)
Erikson believes that this third psychosocial crisis occurs during what he calls the ‘play age’. During it, the healthy developing child learns 1) to imagine, to broaden his skills through active play of all sorts, including fantasy 2) to cooperate with others 3) to lead as well as follow immobilised by guilt, he is 1) fearful, 2) hangs on to the fringes of groups,...
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