Credit value 3
To complete this unit, you need to complete all of the questions. You may find that the key word definitions sheet helps you to understand what is expected from the questions. The evidence must be your own work and you must reference your sources where you have undertaken research-refer to policy for malpractice and plagiarism
Outcome 1 – Understand the main legislation, guidelines, policies and procedures for safeguarding children and young people
025 1.1 1.1 Outline current legislation, guidelines, policies and procedures within own UK Home Nation affecting the safeguarding of children and young people.
The current legislation, guidelines, policies and procedures influencing/ affecting the safeguarding of children are as follows
The Children's Act 2004- This act is a springboard for all other policies, procedures and legislations that support the safeguarding of children. The purpose of this act is to set specific guidelines and boundaries for all agencies working with/for children. It promotes the overall safety and well being of the child using The Every Child Matters initiative (2003) as a tool. Working Together to Safeguard Children 2010 - This guideline affect anyone working closely with children and families in independent, voluntary and statutory sectors including Education, Health, Social Service, Police and Probation. It highlights best practise in Child Protection Procedures and Roles and Responsibilities of different agencies, practitioners and the local Safeguarding Children's Boards (LSCB's). It also stipulates the level of training required for the effective protection of children.
The Working Together guidelines were revised in 2013, they now include core legal requirements making it easier for professionals and organisations to effectively safeguard children and promote their wellbeing.
Working together 2013 replaces the policies and guidelines listed below
• Working Together to Safeguard Children (2010)
• The Framework for the Assessment of Children in Need and their Families (2000)
• Statutory guidance on making arrangements to safeguard and promote the welfare of children under section 11 of the Children Act 2004 (2007)
Children and Young persons Act 2008 - The Act outlines the expectations of high quality care and services for children and young people within social services and/or the care system.
Children, Schools and Families Act 2010 - The act ensure that families are aware of and receiving the level and quality of education they are entitled to from the schools their children attend and the wider school system. it also makes provision for children with disabilities and/or special educational needs (SEN)
Human Rights Act 1998 - The act covers the rights and freedoms of all human beings. It prohibits Public Authorities acting in a manner that is incompatible with said freedoms and rights. Although children are not directly mentioned they are still covered by this act as they are seen as people within the eyes of the law.
UN Convention (UNCRC) on the rights of the child, although not legislation provides a full list of comprehensive rights ALL children should expect.
These rights include
• special protection measures and assistance
• access to services such as education and healthcare
• develop their personalities, abilities and talents to the fullest potential
• grow up in an environment of happiness, love and understanding
• be informed about and participate in achieving their rights in an accessible and active manner.
Education Act 2002 - This Act Ensures that all Local Education Authorities, Further Education Institutions and Governing Bodies Safeguard and promote the welfare of every Child.
There are many more Legislations, Policies & Procedures and guidelines affecting Children today. These Acts are constantly evolving and amended to improve the lives and safety of every child.
025-1.2 1.2 Explain child protection within the wider concept of safeguarding children and young people
The term safeguarding is relatively new within children's services it is designed to incorporate a number of different aspects relating to the safety and wellbeing of children. To safeguard a child is to ensure that they are granted the opportunity to reach their full potential and live free from all forms of abuse. The inductions of safeguarding has meant that the risk of harm and abuse is reduced and dealt with before it occurs whereas Child protection is implemented once harm to/abuse of a child has occurred or it is likely to happen due to family circumstance and/or previous history.
Safeguarding encapsulates all work done to ensure the safety of a child. It requires a wide range of policies and procedures within the work place. This includes a Child Protection Policy which ensures that all children within our setting our protected from previous harm, injury or abuse.
Safeguarding protects a child from a number of hazards and dangers this could be something as simple as a main road next to the path they take to school or a more serious issues such as the child possibly coming into contact with an offender during a contact visit. Both issues would require risk assessing in order to show the child was been protected in accordance with the Safeguarding/ Child Protection policy within the work setting.
025 1.3 1.3 Analyse how national and local guidelines, policies and procedures for safeguarding affect THREE aspects of day to day work with children and young people. Choose the two aspects of day to day work from this list • Childcare practice
• Child protection • Risk assessment • Ensuring the voice of the child or young person is heard (e.g. providing advocacy services) • Supporting children and young people and others who may be expressing concerns
Safeguarding Policies & Procedures and Guideline affect all aspects of the day to day work we as practitioners do with the Children and Young People in our care by following these we ensure we give the children and young people the best possible start in life and the ability to achieve in adulthood.
Child Protection - We use child protection strategies daily to ensure the welfare off the children we work with is effectively safeguarded. It is an essential part of the work we do with the children and young people as it directly influences the people they come into contact with i.e. all staff and volunteers must be CRB checked and it also effects the environments to which we expose the children/young people. By implementing the child protections guidelines daily we effectively reduce the risk of harm to the children and young people.
Risk Assessing - Risk assessing is an essential part of my job role. It works hand in hand with child protection; by assessing the risk to the children we reduce the possible harm that may occur. Risk assessing must be done for all activities, car journeys, environments, family contact etc. The aim of a risk assessment is to reduce said risk thus keeping the children safe which coincides with our Duty of Care and must be performed daily.
Training - Anyone wishing to work with children must be trained in safeguarding in line with the safeguarding policy this training must be in date and redone when amendments or changes are made to the policy. As well as safeguarding training it is an essential part of the day to day work we do with the children within our care to attend many different training sessions ranging from attachment theory, Autism, SEN Training etc. We as care staff never stop educating ourselves and expanding our knowledge in order to offer the children and young people the best possible level of care.
025 1.4 1.4 Explain when and why inquiries and serious case reviews are required and how the sharing of the findings informs practice
Serious case reviews (SCR) are conducted when a child death is linked to abuse and/or neglect. A SCR will also be held if a child has been seriously harmed as a result of neglect/abuse or a parent has been murdered and a domestic homicide review is underway.
Serious case reviews are also undertaken when a child dies in police custody, on remand or following sentencing, in a Young Offender Institution, a secure training centre or a secure children’s home, or where the child was detained under the Mental Health Act 2005.
The reviews are usually held by the Local inter-agency group responsible for child protection. In the case of Oxfordshire this would be the Oxfordshire Safeguarding Children's Board (OSGB). In the case of a Looked After Child the local authority responsible for the child should take the lead in reviewing the case whilst working closely with any other LSCB involved.
The aim of the reviews are not to establish the way in which the child died or was injured or who was responsible for the abuse this would be the job of the Coroners and/or the Criminal Court, but rather their job is to assess the way in which Local professionals and organisations involved with the child conducted their work and in what ways they can improve the way they work to safeguard children in the future. The Victoria Climbie Inquiry is a perfect example of how Serious case reviews altered the way in which we as professionals work, as a result of the review the Every Child Matter initiative (2003) was introduce to improve the way in which we work with children and young people within the care/ social services system.
The serious case review procedure was revised in the Working Together to safeguard children 2013 guidelines. The revised guidelines now include a National panel of independent experts who participate in all serious case reviews. Their purpose is to advise and support the LSCB dealing with the SCR. The panel will ensure that all actions are taken to learn from the SCR and to ensure the lessons learnt are shared with other organisations and LSCB’s through publication of their findings. The panel’s remit includes advising LSCBs regarding:
• application of the SCR criteria;
• appointment of reviewers; and
• Publication of SCR reports.
The SCR should be transparent and the findings shared publicly including the LSCB’s response. The aim of all SCR carried out is to promote a culture of continues learning and improvement.
A full Serious Case Review Checklist can be found in the Working Together to safeguard children 2013 guidelines. This gives full details of every step of the process undertaken.
025 1.5 1.5 Explain how the processes used by your own work setting meets the requirements for Data Protection legislation and information handling and sharing
The Data Protection Acts 8 Principles -
• Processed fairly and lawfully
• Obtained & used only for specified and lawful purposes
• Adequate, relevant and not excessive
• Accurate, and where necessary, kept up to date
• Kept for no longer than necessary
• Processed in accordance with the individuals rights (as defined)
• Kept secure
• Transferred only to countries that offer adequate data protection Data Protection Act 2010
Within my work setting we have a Data Protection policy which includes a number of Data Protection Standards. The policy also includes personal guidelines for every member of staff relating to their job role responsibilities when handling personal information. Staff adhere to these strict guidelines when processing all Data.
Action for children corporate standards-
• Standard 1 - Accountability for compliance with the DPA
Each director is responsible for seeing that the standards are adhered to and monitored
• Standard 2 – Obtaining personal information
Personal information is collected fairly, for a particular purpose/s and is of good quality.
• Standard 3 – Sensitive personal information
One of the special conditions is met when collecting and using “sensitive” personal information
• Standard 4 - Holding personal information
Personal information is adequate, relevant, not excessive, accurate, and up to date and not held longer than necessary.
• Standard 5 - Rights of individuals
The legal rights of individuals are upheld when processing their personal information.
• Standard 6 - Security
All employees fulfil their duty to keep an individual’s personal information secure.
Action For Children Data Protection Policy (The Loop)
The Corporate standards ensure that a precise framework is used when processing Data and personal information. The aims of the standards are to establish good practice and comply with the Data Protection Act thus staying within the law and meeting the requirements laid out within the DPA.
The policy is laid out with standards and guidelines to ensure good data protection practice which is considered essential in building relationships and trust with the Service Users and their families. It also ensures that all personal information gathered is processed in a fair and lawful way.
Within my workplace all children and young people are asked to complete a Consent to Process Data Form at the start of their placement. They are also issued with a Confidentiality Statement outlining their rights to privacy and confidentiality and also the need to share information with other agencies when a child is thought to be at risk. The child or young person is also issued with a Keeping Your Information Safe and Secure Leaflet which instructs them on the Data Protection Act and what we do with their information, it also sign posts them to relevant websites for further information. As a keyworker I go through all of these documents with the child/YP and explain to them what each one means to them. Signed copies of the documentation are then filled in the young person’s case file.
A Case File contains confidential documentation relating to the Young Person and their history, all case files are locked away in a filing cabinet to ensure privacy and only accessed by authorised personnel. All information regarding the child/YP is stored away in their case file immediately and not left in filling trays. I review the case files on a regular basis to ensure the personal information we hold is up to date and relevant, I then archive any documentation not required in the case file in a safe way ensuring it is stored in a secure place.
Every child/Young Person has the right to access the information held in their case file and can request this at any time. Thought must be given regarding any information that could cause distress to the young person and must be discussed with the work place line manager. All confidential Third Party documentation must be removed before giving access to the case file. The young person also has the option to comment on the records we keep regarding them and they are given an opportunity to do this on their daily record sheet.
All Case files are archived once closed and kept for a number of years remaining available for the child to access through to adulthood.
Outcome 2 – Understanding the importance of working in partnership with other organisations to safeguard children and young people
025-2.1 2.1 Explain the importance of safeguarding children and young people.
Safeguarding a child enables them to grow up free from neglect and/or abuse. It is a fundamental part of their personal development and future self. Safeguarding a child throughout their early years ensures that they are equipped with the tools and ability to reach their full potential during their adult life.
As practitioner i have a duty of care to Safeguard the children and young people i work with and ensure that they grow up in a safe environment free from harm or prejudice thus promoting positive well being.
025-2.2 2.2 Explain why a person- centred approach is important in safeguarding the well-being of children or young people.
Using a person- centred approach gives the child a voice in which to view their opinions or concerns. If a child feel included in the decision making of their own future it gives them ownership over their life and a sense of belonging/ identity. A person- centred approach empowers the child to make positive contributions to his/her care planning and meet their own individual needs.
The relationship formed between the carer and child will be built on trust and mutual respect because the child has been given a voice. When using a person centred approach it becomes clear that every child is different and unique. A person centred approach also ensures that the child needs and well being are considered first before anything else.
025-2.3 2.3 Explain what is meant by partnership working in the context of safeguarding
In order to effectively safeguard the service users within our care we must have the ability to identify concerns, information share and take action. The best way to do this is by working in partnership with other agencies, by sharing Information and using the expertise and knowledge of other professionals we increase the level of protection our children and YP’s receive.
For professionals to implement sufficient safeguarding measures they must first have a ‘complete picture of the child’. This is only possible when all agencies linked to the child have shared all the relevant information relating to the child’s situation. Other agencies can include Social Workers, the Police, Education departments, NSPCC and the NHS. Within this chain one or more agencies may have a concern that on its own merit does not require any intervention, however by sharing the information the bigger picture may reveal a number of small incidents that lead to a much bigger child protection issues demonstrating the importance of working together to safeguard a child.
025-2.4 2.4 Describe the role and responsibilities of TWO of the different organisations listed that may be involved when a child or young person has been abused or harmed.
• Social services • NSPCC • Health visitor • GP • Probation • Police • School
• Psychology service
NSPCC – The NSPCC is a voluntary organisation which runs a 24 hour Freephone Child Protection Helpline. This is staffed by trained professionals and qualified counsellors who respond to concerns regarding the safety/ protection of the children callers. The NSPCC are authorised to undertake Section 47 Enquiries (Child Protection) if they believe a child is at risk of harm/abuse. They will also involve the child’s relevant local authority. The NSPCC also offer a range of other services including therapeutic support to help those who have been abused move on with their lives and support for parents and carers who require help to care for their children.
Police – The primary tasks of the police are to Protect life and Prevent crime. They have a duty and responsibility to investigate any criminal offences that are committed against children. The investigations should be conducted with sensitivity and in a professional manner. The police aim to find out if an offence has been committed and if so to identify the person responsible. The police also participate in child protection enquiries, conferences and Serious Case Reviews.
A fundamental part of a police officer’s role is to safeguard children, they provide and emergency response in crisis situations involving children.
Outcome 3 – Understand the importance of ensuring children and young people’s safety and protection in the work setting
025-3.1 3.1 Explain why it is important to ensure children and young people are protected from harm in the work setting
It is important to ensure that the children and young people within our care are protected from harm as this is a key part to their development. A child free from harm is healthy, safe and their wellbeing is promoted giving them the ability to achieve their full potential.
As practitioners we have a responsibility and a duty to protect the children within our care from all forms of harm whether it be accidental or deliberate, failing to do so would be a gross breach of professionalism.
025-3.2 3.2 Explain the policies and procedures listed below that are in place to protect children and young people and adults who work with them
• Working in an open and transparent way
This could be as simple as the layout of the building you work in, making sure that everything that is done can be seen my other members of staff meaning no member of staff is every left totally alone with a child. Protecting both the child and staff member.
Communication between team members, management (team meetings) and other agencies (social worker, LSCB) about the work done with a child and the planning of future work ensures that the work carried out is done in an appropriate and professional manner and consistent with policies and procedures.
• Listening to children and young people
When using a child - centred approach within the workplace it is important to listen to the child so you can meet their needs and ensure they receive the best possible level of care.
Listening to the children we work with can also highlight concerns relating to safeguarding issues.
• Duty of care
Having a Duty of care ensures that the vigilance and attention of staff keeps the children we care for safe from harm and free from abuse. It enables the child to develop and reach their full potential.
Duty of care protects the children from accidental and intentional harm.
Poor practice/ behaviour can have a damaging affect on the children within our care and the staff team working within the unit. Unacceptable practice must not be ignored. If the correct policies & procedures are not been followed then it must be reported.
Action for children’s whistleblowing policy promotes a safe and open culture and instructs any staff member with concerns of inappropriate or unlawful conduct within the work place on how to voice their concerns. All concerns relating to unlawful or inappropriate conduct, financial malpractice or practices that endanger the service user are covered by the whistleblowing policy.
The whistle blowing policy has guidelines for the user to follow to identify if their concern falls within the policy remit. It also highlight the way in which to make your concerns heard for example I would first approach my line manager with my issues and then the Vice Principle, Principle, AFC senior Management then trustees and so on until I felt that my concerns had been dealt with in the appropriate manner. (The policy lists names and contact details)
In order to seek independent or externally guidance I can contact my trade union who will give me legal advice and instruct me on further steps to take. I may also contact charities such as Public Concern at Work who guide workers through the whistle blowing process. Regulatory authorities such as The Charity Commission, The Health and Safety Executive may also be consulted.
• Power and positions of trust
When working with children and young people you are placed in a position of trust because of the authority/power you have over the children in your care.
Many of the children within my care have been abused and neglected and are very vulnerable. When working with the children and young people it is important to follow the Safeguarding Framework and the health, safety and wellbeing policy which highlights safe working practice and also to risk assess all/any lone working that may take place.
Anyone wishing to work with children must have an enhanced CRB check.
• Propriety and behaviour
Children form bonds with the adults who care for them. The person within a position of trust is respected and looked up too. When this is taken into consideration it is important to remember how you as a carer behave in front of the children you look after and the example you set for them.
Been a positive role model is and essential part of working with children.
The code of conduct provides worker with a framework of expected behaviours. The code relies on the worker using their personal integrity and taking their own personal responsibility for their own actions as well as following the framework.
Values and Ethics
Keep the Child at the Centre – Workers must behave and communicate in a way that safeguard and promotes the well-being of children and young people.
Integrity - Workers must carry out their role with integrity, treating those with whom they have relationships in a professional and respectful manner.
Diversity & Inclusion - Workers must behave & communicate with others in an inclusive manner that adheres to the principles of Dignity at Work as set out in Action for Children’s Diversity & Inclusion policy. (hyperlink to be inserted)
Environmental Awareness - Workers must work safely & efficiently and avoid any unnecessary waste of Action for Children’s resources and with respect for the environment.
• Physical contact / Intimate personal care
Physical contact can easily be misinterpreted. It is essential to know the workplace policy relating to physical contact with a young person. As some forms of contact are necessary i.e. picking a child up if they have fallen. If a child requires help with personal care then this must never be performed in a closed room or out of sight from other staff, putting in place a risk assessment will also aide in safeguarding the child and staff members further.
Policies such as close contact with children and young people guidance and the safeguarding framework relating to physical contact not only protect the child but also the staff. Physical contact may also include restraint all staff participating in restraint must be Team Teach trained which instruct the user where to hold and what are appropriate areas of the body. The Behaviour Support procedure must be followed.
• Offsite visits
When planning family contact careful consideration must be undertaken, it is essential that child is safe. Preliminary checks on the family members involved in the visit must be done and the environment in which it will take place must be risk assessed. Working with other agencies such as the Childs social worker will assist in the contact planning process.
Emergency contact details must be given to the family at the beginning of the contact if it is an unsupervised overnight stay so they can contact staff if the child becomes distressed or they find it hard to cope with the demands of the child.
If the offsite visit is an activity then the staff to child ratio will have to be considered. The activity must be risk assessed and all emergency contact details and mobile phone taken along with money and a first aid kit.
• Photography and video
Photographs and home videos are an essential part of tracking ones life so it is vital that children in care are also afforded this opportunity however rules must be adhered to such as the pictures are only made available to the parental guardian or carer of the child and permission has been sought.
All pictures and videos must be appropriate and taken on work equipment. Use of a personal camera/phone is not acceptable practice.
The use of cameras policy provides a platform for all projects to produce their own guidelines regarding photography. The policy covers issues such as the use of personal equipment and the individuals’ rights to privacy.
• Sharing concerns and recording/reporting incidents
Within my workplace we have a number of ways in which to report incidents and accidents. The process of reporting will change depending on the severity of the incident or accident. For example if the incident is a minor one relating to a young persons behaviour we will inform others in the staff and management team by completing a general incident form, this will list full details of the incident and the people involved. It will also include suspected triggers and the behaviour management implemented by staff. The general incident form will then be emailed to the Vice Principle of care and a copy will be placed on the YP's file.
If the YP has been involved in an accident again the severity will dictate which process is completed. If it is a minor accident and the YP required no medical intervention then an AssessNet Accident form will be completed and forwarded to the relevant people and a copy will be placed on the YP's file. If the accident is of a more serious nature and the YP required medical attention then the AssessNet Accident Form would still need completing but the incident would also need to be reported to OFSTED who require notification if a child has been injured and has received treatment from a general practitioner, Hospital or if a child has died. We would inform OFSTED using the notification to OFSTED form
When there is any injury/death involving a child, parent, volunteer, staff member or visitor on the premises then the incident would also be reported using RIDDOR Following the health, safety and wellbeing policy, safeguarding framework policy and in some case the manual handling policy.
3.3 Evaluate ways in which concerns about poor practice can be reported whilst ensuring that whistle blowers and those whose practice or behaviour is being questioned are protected
Whistle blowers can report concerns in two ways either internally to members of their management team or externally to regulators, in more extreme circumstances to the Police or Media sources.
Once an allegation of misconduct has been made the whistle blower is protected under the Public Interest Disclosure Act 1998 which provides a frame work of legal protection for those who disclose information exposing malpractice. If the whistle blower wishes to seek further help or support then the Whistle blowing Charity (Public Concern at Work) or their Trade Union may be used.
Those who are accused of malpractice are entitled to have their views heard. They are also entitled to confidentiality and protection from their employer until the investigation is complete. The accused can have legal representation and may be accompanied to all meeting by a trade union representative or a trusted colleague. They must be informed of all details throughout the investigation process and final outcomes. The employer must offered support if needed
025-3.4 3.4 Explain how practitioners can take steps to protect themselves within their everyday practice in the work setting and on off site visits
Protecting yourself within the work place can be done in a number of different ways. Ensuring that you have a clear understanding of and following all policies and procedures will enable you to safeguard yourself and others. Remaining open and transparent in your working practice will protect you in all areas. Recording and documenting all occurrences, events and incidents will give you a clear log in case you are required to evidence yours and/or the YP's daily activities. Seeking guidance from those who are above you enables you to learn and develop good practice. Effectively communicating with your team members ensures you are all working towards the same goal. All relevant training is up to date i.e. first aid, fire marshal, food hygiene and behaviour management (Team Teach).
Risk assessing all activities and environments ensure that you and the YP's are safe. Following the policies and procedures for the setting will safeguard all involved in the activity. Ensuring that the staff to child ratio is adequate for the activity ahead. All emergency contact details and equipment are taken on the activity including a Mobile phone and first aid kit.
Outcome 4 – Understand how to respond to evidence or concerns that a child or young person has been abused or harmed
025-4.1 4.1 Describe the possible signs, symptoms, indicators and behaviours that may cause concern in the context of safeguarding
Potential indictors/signs that would cause a safeguarding concern
Physical Abuse Neglect burns Frequently absent from school
Bruises Consistently dirty
Broken bones } All Unexplained Begs or steals food or money
Bites Lacks medical or dental care Black eyes.
Sudden refusal to participate in physical activities or change for gym
Bedwetting, soiling or nightmares
Unusual sexual knowledge or behaviour for age
Contracting STD’s/STDI’s (particularly if under 14yrs)
Reports sexual abuse
025-4.2 4.2 Describe the actions to take if a child or young person alleges harm or abuse in line with policies and procedures of own setting
The actions I would take if a child/young person came to me with allegations of abuse would first be to listen to the child. I would not ask leading questions or probe the child. After the child had finished giving me their account I would instruct the child that I understand how hard it has been to come forward and acknowledge the trust they have shown in me but explain that due to the nature of their disclosure I have to inform someone more senior than myself in order to safeguard them.
After I had ensured the child was calm and safe I would document the conversation using the child’s words whilst making sure not to make any assumptions or use my own opinions. The report would then be passed on to the Vice Principal of care in line with procedure and highlight my concerns regarding the safety of the child. Once the report has been summited I would continue to follow this up to ensure action has been taken.
If I felt that the appropriate process had not been completed I would again highlight my concerns to the Vice Principals line manager. When all internal process were complete if i was still not happy with the outcome and felt there was more to be done I would contact the Oxfordshire safeguarding board for further help.
The AFC Safeguarding Framework policy lists the actions to be taken in the event of an allegation.
025-4.3 4.3 Explain the rights that children, young people and their carers have in situations where harm or abuse is suspected or alleged
All Children have the right to be protected against significant harm (Children’s Act 2004, Every Child Matters 2003, UNCRC etc.)
A child who has made an allegation of abuse has the right not be subjected to repeated medical examination and/or excessive questioning following the alleged abuse. The child should be listened to and their account heard. The view of the child should be taken into consideration. If a child is still at risk of significant harm then the child must be made safe. The child should be made aware of the process and kept informed of everything that is happening around them, this must be relayed to them in a sensitive and age appropriate manner.
Parent, guardians and carers have the right to be informed of suspected abuse and given details as well as express their views and opinions but only when the child is safe.
Outcome 5 – Understand how to respond to evidence or concerns that a child or young person has been bullied
025-5.1 5.1 Explain different types of bullying and the potential effects on children and young people.
• Physical-e.g. pushing, hitting
Physical bullying can include punching, kicking, tripping, hair pulling and biting etc. The effects on children and young people can be extremely damaging both physically and mentally. As well as the bullied child suffering physical pain they will feel scared, depressed and fearful of repeated attacks
• Verbal-e.g.name calling, teasing
When a Child is verbally bullied they may experience this in two forms 1.) The spoken word and/or 2.) The written word, this may include threat of physical attacks, name calling, sexual/ racial/homophobic remarks and jokes, rumour spreading and gossiping etc. The aim of verbal bullying is to degrade and demean the victim and has many psychological effects such as low self esteem and depression which in turn could lead to self harm, the use of drugs and alcohol as a form of escapism or in more seriously circumstances suicide.
• Emotional-e.g. ridicule, humiliation
The aim of emotional bullying much like verbal bullying is to degrade and demean the victim and again has many psychological effects that can lead to the loss of self esteem, dislike of self image, loneliness and could potentially lead to stress related illnesses leading to the loss of life.
Unlike physical bullying which can be identified by cuts and bruisers emotional bullying leaves no evidence meaning it is less likely to be detected.
• Cyber bullying-e.g. use of ICT equipment to deliberately upset
Cyber bullying involves sending or posting harmful material online or via mobile phones. Types of cyber bulling may included making false or defamatory allegations and/ or the spreading of rumours on networking sites so others within their peer group can see them possibly resulting in the group 'ganging up' on the victim. Cyber bullies may also disclose personal information about their victim such as real name, phone number, address and school info etc potentially putting their victim at risk of sexual grooming/abuse.
Cyber bullying often goes unreported because the victim feels embarrassed or scared of reoccurrences. The victim is effected in many ways such as anxiety, depression and other stress related illnesses as cyber bullying affects the victims self confidence and image.
• Specific types-e.g. gender based, racist or relating to disability
Specific types of bullying such as homophobic, racial, sexual and disability harassment are both physical and psychological the perpetrator will use offensive slurs, name calling, mockery, physical aggression, stereotypical impersonations etc in order to humiliate and taunt their victim. The affects on the victim like all forms of bullying include low self confidence, lack of self respect, fear, anxious and self hatred.
All forms of bullying have damaging effects on the victims’ wellbeing, although situations differ for every individual the affects remain the same. The victim will lose their self confidence, & self esteem. They will become withdrawn and anxious, stress related illnesses such as depression may in turn lead to self-harm. The victim may also run away or achieve poorly academically. In serious cases of bullying the victim may feel that there is no way out of the situation and attempt to take their life.
025-5.2 5.2 Outline the policies and procedures that should be followed in response to concerns or evidence of bullying and explain the reasons why they are in place.
Within my work place we have an effective policy known as The Anti-Bullying Standards. These standards are used in the event of all bullying concerns. They include issues such as reporting bullying, working with parents, working with and supporting bullied children/bullying children, training etc. The standards are in place to highlight the issue of bullying and provide ways in which to prevent it. The standards also list ways in which to manage bullying when it occurs.
There is also a behavior support policy that promotes positive behavior and relationships between peers.
When concerns are raised regarding bullying the standards and the behavior support policy can be found on the internal Loop.
025-5.3 5.3 Explain how to support a child or young person and/or their family when bullying is suspected or alleged
When dealing with a child who has been the victim of bullying it is important to take into consideration the sensitive nature of the disclosure and the fear and distress the child will be in although this may not be evident externally. The child will be greatly upset and will need reassurance that the matter will be taken seriously. It is also important to remember that the child making the bullying complaint may be fearful of reprisal so ensure that you are away from other children in the area allowing the child to discuss the issue privately.
Once the child has told you their account it must be documented using their own words. If the child is old enough they can document the details themselves reminding them to use as much detail as possible so the issues can be dealt with quickly. When all details have been gathered reassure the child that the issue will be dealt with and explain that the information will be passed on to someone more senior (VP of care/Principal) to deal with.
It is vital that you remain in contact with the victim giving them updates on the process of their bullying complaint. By making the victim aware that you are available to talk with at any time and designating another member of staff they trust in case you are away you reassure the child that they are safe and protected.
Parents or Carers may find it hard to support /help their child when they discover they are being bullied. It is important to listen to their feelings about the situation and inform them of the actions you have taken following the child’s disclosure. By directing them to useful sites they can pick tips on how to help their child.
Useful sites may include
Outcome 6- Understand how to work with children and young people to support their safety and wellbeing
025-6.1 6.1 Explain how to support children and young people’s self – confidence and self - esteem
Children and young people with high self-esteem/confidence excel developmentally and are less likely to become vulnerable adults or victims of abuse.
Children and young people must feel good about themselves in order to gain high self esteem/confidence. There are a number of ways to achieve this, encouraging the child to be independent and take on new challenges will increase their confidence and help them realise their capability. When the child engages in new challenges and situations, positive praise and encouragement will help them advance further. Teaching the child how to be assertive will ensure they know how to have their needs met however the child must be taught to respect the needs of the people around them. Being a positive role model and setting a good example of a positive attitude will also enhance the child/ young persons self esteem/confidence.
025-6.2 6.2 Analyse the importance of supporting resilience in children and young people
Resilience is a skill that children will take through to adulthood. It gives us the ability to cope with the Up's & Down's of life. It is one of the most important coping mechanisms we as humans have. There are many factors that can positively contribute to a child's resilience such as secure and positive attachments in early years, high self esteem and a good sense of self image.
Love, independence, confidence and the ability to take on new challenges all give the child heightened resilience. When all these factors are combined the child will develop a high self worth and understand how to set realistic goals and expectations. Resilience gives the child the ability to problem solve and make independent decisions. Resilience also gives the child the ability to form positive relationships with their peers.
A resilient child has higher potential to achieve. Care givers can promote resilience by setting realistic goals for the child/young person and praising them when they have complete them, communicating and listening to the child, showing them affection and teaching them how to cope with failure and/or disappointment.
Children who have been equipped with resilience in their early years will have a positive outlook on life, form positive relationships throughout adulthood, understand their capabilities, develop advanced social skills and live a well rounded life.
025 6.3 6.3 Explain why it is important to work with the child and young person to ensure they have strategies to protect themselves and make decisions about safety
It is important to ensure that children/Young people can safeguard themselves as this equips them with the ability to make the correct decisions about situations they may encounter. If the child has strategies to protect themselves they are less likely to become vulnerable. Children need the confidence to voice their concerns if they are uncomfortable about anything that is happening to them. They also need the ability to identify dangerous situations.
There are many ways to teach a child how to protect themselves and understand safety for example teaching them about the dangers of sexual predators and what to do in a situation where they suspect abuse. Also highlighting the issues surrounding child exploitation and grooming being sure to include online issues will equip them to make the right decisions about the people they meet.
Providing a young person with a positive sexual education which includes the risk connected to sex i.e. STD's, STI's and pregnancy will protect them and help them form positive healthy relationships.
Children must also be educated about day to day safety and the dangers posed by activities they do for example road safety, protective equipment when partaking in activity such as wearing a helmet when riding a bike or knee and elbow pads when skate boarding etc. Children must also be informed about the dangers surrounding substance abuse.
When teaching a child ways in which to protect themselves it is important to be age appropriate and encourage them to share any worries they may have about the issues discussed. It is also important to educate the child to talk to someone they trust about issues they may encounter.
Children can also be directed to other support networks such as ChildLine and NSPCC.
025-6.4 6.4 Explain ways of empowering children and young people to make positive and informed choices that support their well being and safety
Children will inevitably push boundaries and take risk, this enables them to learn. We as carers are there to ensure that the risks they take are safe ones and educate them about the more serious risk they attempt to take.
An empowered child will understand how to safeguard themselves from risk because they have the knowledge to make positive and informed choices that protect their well being.
In order to empower a child first we must listen to the child and take their views and opinions seriously, have them participate in decision making, teach them new skills, help them understand their own strengths, setting goals and being non judgemental etc.
Outcome 7 – Understand the importance of e-safety for children and young people
025-7.1 7.1 Explain the risks and possible consequences for children and young people of being online and of using a mobile phone. Give an examples of a risk and possible consequence for:
There are a number of risks connected with online use and the use of a mobile phone. The risks become greater when theses tools are in the hands of a child. They may be subjected to non age appropriate material such as pornography or divulge personal information such as contact details or home/school address making them vulnerable. Children can become the victim of bullying via text message or cyber bullying leading to many physical and psychological problems.
Being on line-
Risk: The Child/Young Person may come into contact with a sexual predator.
Consequence: Victim of grooming and sexual exploitation.
Risk: The Child becomes a victim of bullying by their peer group.
Consequence: Stress Related Illness such as depression and self harm damaging the Childs self esteem, confidence and well being.
7.2 Give TWO example of the ways to reduce risks risk to children and young people from:
a. Social networking-
1. Educate the child. Advise them on the type of personal information they should and should not share. Instruct them what to do in the event of a stranger approaching them on line.
2. Download social networking protection which alerts care givers to any suspicious or concerning behaviour such as contact from strangers, cyber bullying dangers, inappropriate content/language etc.
b. Internet use-
1. Limit internet use for the child and place computer in an open space such as the living room so others are present
2. Depending on the age of the child online supervision (Sitting with the child) can safeguard a child alternatively specialist parental control software can be purchased.
c. Buying online-
1. Using Password protected site such as eBay and Amazon to which the care giver is the only person who knows the password. Limited knowledge of debit/credit card details.
2. Only using reputable companies that have been used be the household before and offers payment protection such as pay pal.
d. Using a mobile phone-
1. Imposing usage limitation, educating the child about bullying and divulging personal information.
2. Itemised billing enables parents/care givers to spot trends in numbers and allows them to identify who the child has the most contact with.
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