Table 1: Physical development
Age range Explain the sequence and rate of development
0-3 months newborn, infants are showing signs of physical development.
They can move their head and limbs, will start to grasp fingers
and if held in an upright position use their legs in a stepping
3-6 months infants can roll from their backs onto their stomachs and push
their head, chest and neck off the floor and they can carry on
doing the things they learnt the first term of their life. Can take
solid foods at 6 months, sit with support.
6-9 months gets first teeth,is better able to see things far away, can take
solid foods at 6 months. Begins to crawl, is able
to sit alone for a short time. Uses thumb and pointing finger to
pick up objects.
9-12 months drinks from a cup, can eat with fingers, pulls to a stand and stands alone, walks holding onto objects, can throw a ball.
1-2 years walk alone, will push and pull toys when walking and are able to kick, roll and throw a ball.( runs, climbs,steps, and explores) by using large muscle such as legs and arms.
2-4 years child will have greatly improved both their gross and fine motor skills,goes up and down steps alone, runs, uses spoon and fork, turns pages in books, kicks a ball, tries to dress self, toilet training. Runs well, marches, rides tricycle. Can feed self. Pours from jug. Puts on shoes and socks, buttons and unbuttons. Builds 10- block tower. Is awkward when cutting with scissors. Can wash face and dress self except for tying shoes. Throws ball overhand.Has lotsof energy ready for school.
4-7 years child’s fine motor skills may include; putting together a 12 piece jigsaw and are able to button and unbutton their own clothes. By 5 years they are learning to form letters and some are capable of writing their own name with no support. At around 7 years old a child is able to control a pencil in a small area and accurately use a pair of scissors. Some children may have a better understanding of making intricate models. Gross motor skills can include jumping, riding a bicycle. They are able to run quickly, be skilled enough to hit a ball accurately with a bat and balance on a wall or beam. Some children may be capable of roller skating and get up without using their hands for support.
7-12 years Both skills (gross and motor) are being enhanced by the time a child has reached the age of 11. They will have improved on the physical skills they have already developed. Their body strength will have increased along with their balance and coordination. Children will have increased in both weight and height and some young girls from as young as 8, puberty may have begun. Breasts may start to develop and their menstruation cycle begins. Young adolescents’ fine motor skills will have enhanced and concentration can be held for longer which enables them to perform more complex tasks. Some children may have developed talents such as music, dancing and playing a musical instrument, a child’s writing will have improved and should now be learning how to write using ‘joined up writing’.
12-16years During adolescence, young people go through many changes as they move from childhood into teenagers. At that age young girls breasts will have started to develop and will have. A girls menstrual cycle may start as early as 12 and as late as 15. Pubic, armpit and underarm hair will grow equivalent to that of an adults at around 13~14 years old. Boys may begin to notice that their testicles and scrotum are growing their voices break the presence of sperm. Pubic as well as armpit, leg, chest and facial hair begins to grow at about age 12 and is equivalent to that of an adult about 15 to 16 years. Physically, teenagers become much stronger and develop gross motor skills through a wide range of sports.( in my old sport studies all the abilities for a professional sport person will be kick in by the age of 16 the body is in higher performance and feel invincible) the young peope at this period need lots of rest – more than at any time since they were babies. They may worry about their weight because looking good and being popular are important to them.
16-19years Girls complete physical and sexual growth. Boys may continue to grow through late teen years and into their early 20s. Weight and being fit are concerns to older teens. they could be sexually active and have children themselves. Some could be taller than their parents. By that time they are going to be ready for adulthood.