Ummayad Mosque - an Architectural Analysis of the History

Good Essays
Topics: Mosque, Islam, Jerusalem
Umayyad Mosque, Damascus, Syria
Space and Symbolism

By Shijo Jose (A/2371/2011)
History of Architecture
II Year Sem IV

Great Mosque of Damascus, also called Umayyad Mosque, the earliest surviving stone mosque, built between ad 705 and 715 by the Umayyad Caliph al-Walīd I. The mosque stands on the site of a 1st-century Hellenic temple to Jupiter and of a later church ‘Basilica of Saint John the Baptist’. Some Syrio-Roman fragments remain in the structure, as does a shrine supposedly enclosing a relic honoured by Muslims as well as Christians - the head of St. John the Baptist.
The mosque occupies a huge quadrangle 515 by 330 feet (157 by 100 m) and contains a large open courtyard surrounded by an arcade of arches supported by slender columns. The liwan, or hall of worship, running the length of the south side of the mosque, is divided into three long aisles by rows of columns and arches. A transept with a central octagonal dome, originally wooden, cuts across the aisles at their midpoint. The marble grilles that cover the windows in the south wall are the earliest example of geometric interlace in Islāmic architecture. The walls of the mosque were once covered with more than an acre of mosaics depicting a fanciful landscape thought to be the Quʾrānic paradise, but only fragments survive. The mosque was destroyed by Timur in 1401, rebuilt by the Arabs, and damaged by fire in 1893. Although it could not be restored to its original splendour, the mosque is still an impressive architectural monument.

History and Development

Aramaean Period
Damascus was the capital of the Aramaean state Aram-Damascus during the Iron age. They followed the cult of Hadad-Ramman, the god of thunderstorms and rain, and erected a temple dedicated to him at the site of the present-day Mosque. The site likely consisted of a walled courtyard, a small chamber for worship, and a tower-like structure typically symbolizing the "high place" of storm gods, in this case Hadad.



Bibliography: http://www.muslimheritage.com/features/default.cfm?ArticleID=338 http://openbuildings.com/buildings/umayyad-mosque-profile-13804 http://www.muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?articleID=685

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