Ultrasound In The Medical Field

Topics: Sound, Ultrasound, Frequency / Pages: 5 (1242 words) / Published: Dec 1st, 2015
Ultrasounds are becoming a common diagnostic procedure in the medical field because they can measure and detect abnormalities. Ultrasound instruments which are also known as sonographic instruments operate by using high frequency sound waves. These sound waves operate using a frequency range of 1 to 18 megahertz that can be used for imaging. These high-frequency sound waves are out of range of human hearing. The lower frequency of the sound waves produce less resolution but can produce images deeper into the human body. Higher frequency sound waves are capable of reflecting or scattering from smaller structures but are limited to depth of penetration of the sound waves into the body.

Ultrasound technology was originally developed in
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In 1794, Lazzaro Spallanzani, a physiologist discovered how bats, which are blind, traveled with such accuracy by echolocation. Echolocation is the reflection of high frequency sounds. In 1826, Jean Daniel Colladon, a Swiss physicist, discovered how to calculate the speed of sound underwater with the Under-Water Church Bell. Colladon also discovered that sound waves traveled faster underwater than they did in air. In 1880, Pierre & his brother, Jacques Curie, who were both French physicists, discovered the Piezo-Electric effect which is the connection between electrical voltage and pressure on crystalline material. This is how modern transducers were created. In 1915, Paul Langevin, a physicist invented the first transducer called the hydrophone to detect icebergs and submarines during World War 1. In 1942, Dr. Karl Dussik, a neurologist and psychiatrist at the University of Vienna was the first physician to use ultrasound for a medical diagnosis of brain tumors. The procedure Dr. Dussik performed was called a hyperphonography. In 1948, Dr. George Ludwig M.D., from the University of Pennsylvania and an internist was the first to use ultrasound technology in the diagnosis of gallstones in animals. In 1958, Ian Donald became the pioneer for ultrasound technology after he and Tom Brown built the first successful ultrasound diagnostic device. Donald was a …show more content…
These different reasons require different types of transducers. There are special transducers that are used for ultrasounds that are done from within the human body. These ultrasounds are transvaginal, transrectual, and transesophageal echocardiograms. Transvaginal ultrasounds are done by using a transducer wand that is placed in a woman’s vagina to view her reproductive organs. These transducers are inserted approximately two or three inches into the vaginal canal to view the uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, cervix, and vagina. There are many reasons transvaginal ultrasounds may be performed such as, unexplained bleeding, pelvic pain, infertility, cysts, and abnormal pelvic or abdominal exam, along with monitoring pregnancy. Transvaginal ultrasounds give a better picture than the traditional ultrasound and is done when a physician feels there is a problem. Physicians can use these ultrasounds to measure organs or unknown masses to help determine a diagnosis. Transrectal ultrasounds are used to diagnose prostate and rectal conditions. Transrectal ultrasounds are used with a transducer that is inserted into the patient’s rectum. Reasons a physician may do a transrectul ultrasound could be to check for an enlarged prostate, cancer, infertility, or to guide them in biopsy or implant procedures. Transesophageal Echocardiogram uses a transducer probe that is inserted inside the esophagus to get a

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