Types of Measurement

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6. Below are listed some objects of varying degrees of abstraction. Suggest properties of each of these objects that can be measured by each of the four basic types of scales.

There are relatively few pure interval scales found in business research. Almost all text discussions of this scale refer to the example of temperature scales. However, some attitude scales such as the Likert and Semantic Differential, are claimed to approach interval characteristics. In addition, approximate interval scales can be developed from paired comparisons and rank orders of objects.
A. Store customers
Nominal - Group them by race, ethnic background, married or single status, etc.
Ordinal - Rank them as very frequent buyers, frequent buyers, infrequent buyers.
Interval - Some scale of attractiveness in which the scale is presumed to be interval.
Ratio - Average size of monthly purchases.
B. Voter attitudes
Nominal - grouped as Republican, Democrat, Independent, and other.
Ordinal - Rank of candidates in order of preference.
Interval - Likert - type scale
Ratio - Count of votes for various candidates in each district.
C. Hardness of alloy
Nominal - Identification of alloys that include nickel and those that do not.
Ordinal - Ranking of hardness by determining which alloys scratch which others.
Interval - Use of an interval scale designed to rate alloy hardness.
Ratio - Amount of nickel per pound of steel in various alloys.
D. Common stock preference Nominal - Industry classification of preferred stocks. Ordinal - Rank order of five stocks as to your preference for them. Interval - Rating of preference for the stock by converting the results of a paired comparison rating into presumed interval scale. Ratio - Six-month changes in price of various preferred stocks.
E. Division profitability Nominal - Classification of sources of division profits, e.g., manufacturing, assembly, trading, price changes, etc. Ordinal - Ranking of divisions by the size of

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