Types of English borrowings

Topics: Loanword, Polish language, Poland Pages: 2 (548 words) Published: June 24, 2013
Maria Polak
Zagadnienie nr 13 Wpływ języka angielskiego na współczesny język polski.

Since learning English has become common in Poland and travelling abroad is a frequent phenomenon, the influence of English language is visibly increasing. The change was especially observed after 1989, along with the regime changes in Poland. These are the fields in which English borrowings dominate: * the economy, science, technology ( e.g. dealer, leasing, market, menadżer, marketing, sponsoring, biling, skaner, notebook etc.) * way of life (e.g. walentynka, weekend, fan, club, hit, happening, musical, showman, thriller, western, fitness, reality-show, etc).

Types of English borrowings:
1. proper borrowings – they are characterised by a similar graphic form and pronunciation e.g. drops, Eskimos, komandos, pampers

2. loan translations tzw. kalki językowe:
* semantic loan translation (trywialny – banalny, serwować – oferować, absolutnie – oczywiście) * formative loan translation (nastolatek – ang. teenager, narty wodne – ang. water ski, kobieta interesu – ang. business woman) * phrasal loan translation e.g. nie ma problem (ang. no problem) * 2 verbs in imperative e.g. idź i zamów, ćwicz i chudnij

3. derivative words: bungee, trendy, CV, CD, SMS

There are also many constructions which apply –ing, -er formative and such units as: euro-, cyber-, fan-, top-, -land, -holik. More examples of Anglicism include such forms as: czilaut (ang. chillout – odpoczynek, relaks), debeściak, debeściarski (ang. the best), kesz (ang. cash), krejzol (ang. crazy), lajtowy, lajcik (ang. light), lukać (ang. look). A fonetically humorous are such wording as for instance: dzięks, dżampreza, spox, sorry, sorki, CD-sidik, Londyn-Lądek. It is observed that the media and our better knowledge of English language undoubtedly favour the common preservation of acoustic derivate words, fonetically similar to the original ones e.g. pab, Szikago, Bitelsi. English words...
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