1. What are the different types of arts?
Performing Arts - are art forms in which artists use their body, voice, or objects to convey artistic expression—as opposed to visual arts, in which artists use paint/canvas or various materials to create physical art objects. Performing arts include a variety of disciplines but all are intended to be performed in front of a live audience. Performing arts may include primary forms, such as dance, music, opera, theatre and musical theatre, and minor or secondary forms like Magic and/or illusion, mime, spoken, puppetry circus arts, performance art, recitation and public speaking. Artists who participate in performing arts in front of an audience are called performers, including actors, comedians, dancers, magicians, musicians, and singers. Performing arts are also supported by workers in related fields, such as songwriting and stagecraft. Visual Arts - are art forms that refer to ceramics, sculpture. Drawing, painting, printmaking, design, crafts, photography, video, filmmaking and architecture. These definitions should not be taken too strictly as many artistic disciplines (performing arts, conceptual art, textile arts) involve aspects of the visual arts as well as arts of other types. Also included within the visual arts are the applied arts such as industrial design, graphic design, design, interior and decorative art. Literary Arts - in its broadest sense, is any written work; etymologically the term derives from Latin literatura/litteratura "writing formed with letters", although some definitions include spoken or sung texts. More restrictively, it is writing that possesses literary merit and language that foregrounds literariness, as opposed to ordinary. Literature can be classified according to whether it is fiction or non-fiction, and whether it is poetry or prose; it can be further distinguished according to major forms such as the novel, short story or drama; and works are often categorized according to historical periods, or according to their adherence to certain aesthetic features or expectations (genre). Languages - The study of languages is called linguistics and it’s also a social science. Language studies are very significant to the humanities. It focuses on the analysis of languages, development of languages and literature. Literature encompasses a various uses of language such as drama, poetry and prose. Also study of foreign languages and their literatures. History - is a humanities discipline. History refers to the interpretation and study of the records societies, institutions and humans and whichever subject matter that has changed with time. History is a part of humanities. Classics - Normally includes ancient Roman and Greek cultures. Classics are regarded as one of the foundation stones of humanities but its popularity waned all through the twentieth century. However its influences in a number of humanities fields such as literature and philosophy is still strong. Law - The study of laws traverses the margins between the humanities and social sciences. The legal strategies integrate the practical demonstration of thinking for virtually any humanities disciplines and social science. Law is philosophy since ethical and moral persuasions forms their ideas. Philosophy - It is usually the study of problems relating to matters such as knowledge, justice, justifications, truth, right and wrong, beauty, language and mind. It is distinguished from other approaches of tackling these subjects by the critical largely systematic methods and relying on rational argument as opposed to experiments. These days the main disciplines of philosophy are ethics, logic, epistemology and metaphysics. Religion - The study of religions, new religions and philosophies that came from the east and west. A number of religions have developed around world wide such as Buddhism, Hunduism, Confucianism’s etc. There are Abrahamic religions such as Christianity, Islam and Judaism. Music - It can take various paths which include music education, music performance, music composition and theory.
2. What is your personal opinion about the painting “Monalisa” of Leonardo da Vinci? Leonardo da Vinci provided the Mona Lisa with a background that is every odd, although not so often discussed, as the famous smile. It is a two-storied structure, like one of those double churches in which Gothic builders sometimes indulged their talents for the unexpected: below there is a relatively - or formerly - human landscape, with a bridge that spans a partly dry riverbed and a road that winds to a hidden end through hot reddish brown rocks; above there is a frosty region with two glaucous lakes, or sea inlets, and a mountain range whose jagged spires vary from olive green to light blue and finally become transparent in the flooding light of the distant horizon. One can be reminded of the Italian Alps and of parts of Tuscany, but there is no point in seeking a real location, for obviously this is an assembled landscape (McMullen, 91). t was painted sometime between 1503 and 1506, when da Vinci was living in Florence, and it now hangs in the Louvre, in Paris, where it remains an object of pilgrimage in the 21st century. Leonardo explains color perspective this way, ". . . through variations in the air we are made aware of the different distances of various buildings. . . therefore make the first building. . . its own color; the next most distant make more blue. . . at another distance bluer yet and that which is five time more distant make five times more blue." This principle is demonstrated in the background of Mona Lisa: the ground and hills directly behind the subject are painted in warm tones of reddish browns and tans. As the landscape recedes the mountains and water become progressively bluer. Leonardo also noted that air is more dense closest to the earth, therefore the bases of hills will always appear lighter than the summit; he applies this theory to the hills behind the sitter's shoulders which start out a tan color and become dark brown (Kemp, 83-84). His study of shadow can be related to his works in both compositional arrangement and in sfumato** techniques, which are both demonstrated in the Mona Lisa. One method of composition employed by Leonardo involved focus and blur. In the Mona Lisa Leonardo uses shadow in the lowest areas of the picture plane, at the edges, and background of the landscape to blur detail and draw attention to the detailed focus area of the face. Leonardo also uses shadow as a primary element in creating sfumato or soft focus, which creates the illusion of volume by allowing light to emerge from the darkness of shadow. The sitter's body in Mona Lisa emerges from the shadows surrounding her from the mid arm area down. Her hands are areas of light that emerge form the blurred shadows of her body and her face emerges from darkly shadowed areas of hair and veiling. Leonardo's study of the shape of shadow contributed to the blurred shadow edges that are a hallmark of the sfumato style. The Mona Lisa's body and face are enclosed within shadow, but no shadow edges ever become evident (Dunning, 82). **Sfumato is the famous invention of Da Vinci - light and shade that allow one form to blend in with another leaving something to the imagination. He did this to the corners of Mona Lisa’ mouth and eyes which explains why she may look different and different times. Some issues about da Vinci’s painting of Monalisa has also been made about the Mona Lisa's 'uncommonly thick' eyebrows, a belief which came about after Vasari wrote a description of the painting. A close examination of the above detail shows there aren't any eyebrows; women of the time commonly shaved these off. Vasari had never seen the Mona Lisa and though it is popular to quote his text on the painting it must be realized he wrote his treatise based entirely upon hearsay. Despite this, he was totally accurate in stating that, "On looking at the pit of the throat one could swear that the pulses were beating." The most expressive parts of the human face are the outer points of the lips and eyes. Leonardo has deliberately left these areas in shadow which creates the effect of causing different people to read different emotions on the face of the sitter, whoever she may be. 3. What is your opinion about Humanities?
Meaning of Humanities
Humanities are academic disciplines that study human culture. The humanities use methods that are primarily critical, or speculative, and have a significant historical element - as distinguished from the mainly empirical approaches of the natural. The humanities include ancient and modern languages, literature, philosophy, religion, and visual and performing such as music and theatre. The humanities that are also sometimes regarded as social sciences include history, anthropology, area studies, communication studies, cultural studies, law and linguistics. The term ‘Humanities’ comes from a Latin word “humanus” which means human, cultured, and refined. Generally, human beings possess and show quality like rationality, kindness and tenderness. Such basic qualities of humans gain different connotations based on one’s environment, values, beliefs and experiences. They are the contributing factors to the refinement of human’s basic qualities. At present, we know of humanities as a loosely defined group of academic subjects united by commitment tostudying aspects of the human condition and a qualitative approach that generally prevents a single paradigm from coming to define any discipline. Unlike other subjects, it is not a group of scientific or technical subjects. Humanities, however, should not be confused with the term humanism , which refers to a specific philosophical belief, nor with humanitarianism, which is the concern for charitable works and social reform. Academically, we refer to the humanities as the study of arts – the visual arts such as architecture, painting and sculpture; music; dance; the theater or drama; and literature. They are the branches of learning concerned with the human thought, feelings and relations. The study of arts is the study of mankind. Humanities, being the study of arts, have always been concern with the importance of human being, his feelings, and how he expresses those feelings. However, it should be stressed that the humanities emphasize analysis and exchange of ideas rather than the creative expression of the arts or the quantitative explanation of the sciences.
Significance of Humanities
Art is very important in our lives. It constitutes one of the oldest form and most important means of expression developed by man. It is a language, which is charged with feelings and significance that has sprung up among men living together. Art is concerned with the communication of certain ideas and feelings by means of a sensuous medium – color, sound, bronze, marble, words and film. This medium is fashioned through a symbolic language marked by beauty of design and coherence of form. It appeals to our minds, arouses our emotions, kindles our imagination, and enchants our senses. (Machlis, 1963). Thus, each artwork reflects the ideals, hopes and fears of the times in which individual live. The humanities are the stories, the ideas, and the words that help us make sense of our lives and our world. The humanities introduce us to people we have never met, places we have never visited, and ideas that may have never crossed our minds. By showing how others have lived and thought about life, the humanities help us decide what is important in our own lives and what we can do to make them better. By connecting us with other people, they point the way to answers about what is right or wrong, or what is true to our heritage and our history. The humanities help us address the challenges we face together in our families, our communities, and as a nation.