Living with Type 2 Diabetes
Diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs either when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces. Insulin is a hormone that regulates blood sugar. Hyperglycemia, or raised blood sugar, is a common effect of uncontrolled diabetes and over time leads to serious damage to many of the body's systems. No cure has been found for this disease. However, an important part of managing diabetes is maintaining a healthy weight through a healthy diet and exercise plan. (Olokoba, Obateru, Olokoba, 2012) Type 1 diabetes (previously known as insulin-dependent, juvenile or childhood-onset) is characterized by deficient insulin production and requires daily administration of insulin. The cause of type 1 diabetes is not known and it is not preventable with current knowledge. Symptoms include excessive excretion of urine (polyuria), thirst (polydipsia), constant hunger (polyphagia), weight loss, vision changes, and fatigue. These symptoms may occur rapidly. (Mosorovic, Brkic, Nuhbegovic, Pranjic, 2012) Type 2 diabetes (formerly called non-insulin-dependent or adult-onset) results from the body’s ineffective use of insulin. Type 2 diabetes comprises 90% of people with diabetes, and is largely the result of excess body weight and physical inactivity. Symptoms may be similar to those of Type 1 diabetes, but are often less obvious. As a result, the disease may be diagnosed several years after onset, once complications have already arisen. (Mosorovic, Brkic, Nuhbegovic, Pranjic, 2012) Diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death in the United States, affecting 25.8 million people of all ages (8.3 percent of the U.S. population). Of the 25.8 million affected people, 7.0 remain undiagnosed. Diabetes is the leading cause of heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, lower-limb amputations, and new cases of blindness among adults in the United States. (http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov) Meet Mrs. M, who was diagnosed with type 2 diabetes at the age of 35. Mrs. M is now 57 years old. She has learned that although there is no cure for type 2 diabetes, it can be managed. She is aware that in order to better manage this disease she needs to eat well, exercise, and maintain a healthy weight. Mrs. M has graciously agreed to be interviewed. We will learn more about her, how she copes with this disease, and her struggle in maintaining a healthy weight by incorporating healthy cooking in her lifestyle. I will use the five holistic variables within the Neuman Systems Model (NSM) to identify how Mrs. M’s internal and external environment are affected. I will also assess Mrs. M’s learning needs and provide a trustworthy and reliable resource from which she can benefit from. Physical Variable
Mrs. M was diagnosed with type 2 diabetes at the age of 35 when she became pregnant with her last child. During a routine doctor’s visit, it was noticed Mrs. M was gaining a significant amount of weight. Around her 24th week of pregnancy, the doctor ordered she have a glucose test. The test showed a high level of sugar in her blood. The test was repeated and once again, it showed that her glucose level was higher than normal and there was also sugar in her urine. At that point, the doctor diagnosed her with gestational diabetes. In 1990, the only thing that was prescribed was that she begin administering a daily injection of insulin. This came as a completely shock to Mrs. M. She had never even heard of this thing called “diabetes”. Even more disturbing was the fact that she, and her unborn baby, was now carrying this disease. The doctor advised Mrs. M that although the glucose could reach and affect her baby, the insulin would not cross over to the baby. She was pleased with the news that once she delivered the baby, she would return to her normal diabetic state. The doctor informed Mrs. M the importance of checking her blood glucose and maintaining a healthy diet...
References: Olokoba, A. B., Obateru, O. A., & Olokoba, L. B. (2012). Diabetes Mellitus: A Review of Current Trends. Oman Medical Journal, 27(4), 269-273. doi:10. 5001/omj.2012.68
Mosorovic, N., Brkic, S., Nuhbegovic, S., & Pranjic, N. (2012). Quality of life of people with Diabetes Mellitus. Healthmed, 6(7), 1076-1080.
Demirbag, B. (2012). Neuman system model as a conceptual framework for community-based nurses when working with patients. Healthmed, 6(7), 2438-2445.
Craven, R.F., Hirnle, C.J. (2009). Fundamentals of Nursing. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse (NDIC) (February 2011). Fast fact on Diabetes. Retrieved from http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/statistics/#fast
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