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Advances in Space Research 49 (2012) 351–364 www.elsevier.com/locate/asr
Evaluation of using two-phase frictional pressure drop correlations for normal gravity to microgravity and reduced gravity Xiande Fang ⇑, Honggang Zhang, Yu Xu, Xianghui Su
Institute of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 29 Yudao St., Nanjing 210016, China Received 8 May 2011; received in revised form 15 August 2011; accepted 5 September 2011 Available online 19 October 2011
Abstract The calculation of two-phase frictional pressure drop (TPFPD) is required by two-phase systems operating under microgravity and reduced gravity. There are a large number of correlations for the TPFPD in tubes under normal gravity. However, it is hard to ﬁnd out a TPFPD correlation obtained from microgravity and/or reduced gravity conditions, and thus people have to use TPFPD correlations for normal gravity to calculate TPFPD under microgravity and reduced gravity. It is necessary to evaluate the feasibility of such practice. This paper oﬀers a comprehensive review of the TPFPD correlations for normal gravity and an up-to-data survey of the TPFPD experimental study under microgravity and reduced gravity. There are 23 TPFPD correlations for normal gravity reviewed and 135 experimental data under microgravity obtained from the literature. These experimental data are used to evaluate the reviewed TPFPD correlations. It is found that the smallest mean absolute relative deviation (MARD) of the correlations is greater than 34%. Using TPFPD correlations for normal gravity to reduced gravity and microgravity may be acceptable for the ﬁrst approximation, but correlations intended for microgravity and reduced gravity are needed and more experiments are desired to obtain more data with high accuracy. Ó 2011 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Two-phase; Frictional pressure drop; Microgravity; Reduced gravity; Normal gravity
1. Introduction Microgravity (or lg) is used to refer to situations that are substantially weightless, and it is more or less a synonym of weightlessness and zero-g, but indicates that g-forces are not quite zero, just very small. Normal gravity refers to Earth gravity. Often, the term reduced gravity is used to mean weightlessness as it is experienced by orbiting spacecraft, and it is also used to mean gravity less than normal gravity, such as Moon gravity (0.17 g) and Mars gravity (0.38 g). The determination of the two-phase frictional pressure drop (TPFPD) in tubes is important in the development of space thermal transport systems, power acquisition systems, and environmental control and life support systems, which has triggered research into the TPFPD under micro⇑ Corresponding author. Tel./fax: +86 25 8489 6381.
E-mail address: email@example.com (X. Fang).
gravity and reduced gravity conditions. Two-phase ﬂow could meet the escalating power requirements in future thermal management and thermal control systems in spacecraft, communication and Earth observation satellites, as well as space stations. Understanding the hydrodynamic characteristics of two-phase ﬂow under microgravity and reduced gravity is essential to design such systems. The extensive theoretical and experimental study of TPFPD in tubes has been conducted in the past seven decades, and a number of correlations have been proposed for normal gravity. The methods developed so far can be classiﬁed into two categories: homogeneous and separated ﬂow approaches. The former treats two-phase ﬂow as a pseudo single-phase ﬂow characterized by suitably averaged properties of the liquid and vapor phases Shannak, 2008. The latter considers the two-phase to be artiﬁcially separated into two streams, each ﬂowing in its own pipe, with the assumption that the velocity of each phase is constant in
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