The Tuskegee syphilis experiment was an infamous clinical study conducted between 1932-1972 in Macon Country, Alabama by the U.S Public Health Service. The purpose was to study the natural progression of untreated syphilis in rural African American men who thought they were receiving free health care from the U.S government; about four hundred African American men were denied. The doctors that were involved in this study had a shifted mindset; they were called “racist monsters”; “for the most part, doctors and civil servants simply did their jobs. Some merely followed orders, others worked for the glory of science” (Heller) The men that were used for the study got advantage of, especially those who lived in a low-income community; they were not purposely injected with the disease, and the discrimination of the poor men throughout the experiment were taking advantage of. Throughout this research paper, I explained the how, the why, the where, the what, and the who in all three appalling studies. The Oslo Study and the Central American Study were a result of the final Tuskegee experiment and it’s purpose, which is known to be well known, the study of the United States is involved enormously.
Immediately when one hears the term “Tuskegee” it should bring in mind of the private, black university that Booker T. Washington found. The university carries a connotation of the famous Tuskegee Experiment that was held for forty-years. This university of higher education for blacks in the South after the Civil War contributes to the study in Alabama, because of the everlasting issue towards impoverished African American as an official group. The research was attempted three times in Oslo, Norway (1890 to 1910), Macon Country, Alabama (1932 to 1972), and in Guatemala (1946 to1948). As the president, while this experiment was taken place, Bill Clinton, “did something that was wrong, deeply, profoundly, morally wrong.” (Jones)
During 1890 to 1910, an international study was taken place in Oslo, Norway. The investigators were Professor Caesar Boeck, and his successor E. Bruusgaard. However. Boeck denied the use of mercury in his treatments, as the result his patients became involved in the Oslo study, which consisted of 2,00 white men. Boeck believed that the “therapies then available… were of no value.” (Brandt) Paul Ehrlich’s was the first with an effective drug against syphilis, which was injected to the participants. As the result of Ehrlich’s drug it resulted the Oslo study to be abandoned and therefore, syphilis was decreased. Bruusgaard investigated Boeck’s records, and his purpose was to show “how syphilis progresses when little or no treatment is given and the patient’s defense mechanism is allowed to combat the disease alone.” (Fryand, Ole. 1993) In a Norwegian study in 1928 reported on the pathologic manifestations of untreated syphilis in several hundred white males, known as “retrospective study”.
Susan Mokotoff Reverby researched a Central American study, which shocked her, which was the Inoculation of Syphilis in Guatemala in the 1940s. While going through records in the University of Pittsburg, she encountered boxes that had “unpublished field notes, lab reports, lists of patients, and pictures of what had happened in Guatemala.” (Reverby, 2010) Reverby discovered records of the experiment while examining archives of John Charles Culter. Guatemalan soldiers, prisoners, prostitutes,, and mental patients, between 1946 to 1948, were a part of a study which was, Dr. John C. Culter had authority to by being a leading researcher at the U.S Public Health Service. Dr. Juan Funes and Dr. John began the program with the funding of the National Institute for Health. Throughout the Guatemala experiment a total of 696 men and women were exposed to syphilis without the informed consent of the subjects.
The Tuskegee Experiment consisted of 600 poor African American men who...
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Doyle, K. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://nsarchive.wordpress.com/2011/04/25/nara-posts-dr-cutlers-papers-on-medical-experiments-in-guatemala/
Fryand, Ole. Granholt, Astri. (1993) Retrieved from http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC1195234/pdf/genitmed00021-0067.pdf
Goodman, A. Reverby, Susan (2010) (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.democracynow.org/2010/10/5/exposed_us_doctors_secretly_infected_hundreds (video/interview)
Jones, J. H. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0762136.html
Michigan State University. (n. d.). Retrieved from https://www.msu.edu/course/hm/546/tuskegee.htm#The Oslo Study
Mariam, D. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.med.uottawa.ca/HistoryOfMedicine/hetenyi/deria.html
Tuskegee University. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.tuskegee.edu/about_us/centers_of_excellence/bioethics_center/about_the_usphs_syphilis_study.aspx
The White House. Office of the Press Secretary. (2010) Retrieved from http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2010/10/01/read-out-presidents-call-with-guatemalan-president-colom
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