UNIVERSITY OF BEDFORDSHIRE
FACULTY OF HEALTH AND SOCIAL SCIENCES
MSc PUBLIC HEALTH
PRINCIPLES, POLICIES AND ISSUES IN PUBLIC HEALTH MODULE
UNIT CODE: PUB017-6
ELIMINATION OF TUBERCULOSIS FROM PAKISTAN
LECTURER: DR HALA EVANS
Student Number: 1228034
Table of contents
Background 3 Key characteristic 3 Theme 3 Policy/New initiative 4 Strategies 4 Impact/service delivery 5 References 6-7
This action plan is the key knowledge for a briefing paper for the prevention of highly pandemic disease tuberculosis in Pakistan. The main purpose of this action plan to build more effective policies and strong strategies to stop the transmission of the tuberculosis and to eliminate this from Pakistan. Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, usually mycobacterium tuberculosis, it spreads through air and transmission of respiratory fluid of the people with active tuberculosis infection (kumar et al, 2007). A study suggests that approximately 1/3 of the world’s population has tuberculosis infections (Tuberculosis fact sheet, 2010) and every year 1% of the world’s whole population gets tuberculosis infected (WHO, 2002) According to an estimate about 13.7 million chronic cases found in 2007 (WHO, 2009). Another study stats that 8.8 million new cases diagnosed with tuberculosis and 1.45 million among them leads to death every year in developing countries (WHO, 2011). Another study illustrates that tuberculosis is second most common cause of deaths after the HIV/AIDS (Dolin et al, 2010). However there was a significant reductions in prevalence and incidence being seen since 2005 and 2002 respectively (WHO, 2011) It has been observed that tuberculosis is distributed all over the world but 81% Asian and Africans countries are infected with tuberculosis where 5 to 10% diagnosed in united states. In Pakistan Tuberculosis is one of the leading cause of serious sickness which results in high mortality rate approximately 240,000 people get sick which causes approximately 70,000 deaths every year (Khan and Malik, 2003). Tuberculosis place Pakistan at number 6th in highly affected states (Vermund, 2009 ). According to WHO a progress has been made after launching National Tuberculosis Control program in Pakistan since it is established 1.5 million treated free of cost. Key Competencies
Tuberculosis is highly concerning issue in Pakistan and it is highly contagious disease will associate to the key competency area six in faculty of public health which aims to protect the general public from communicable diseases and hazards. Theme
The fundamental theme of this paper is to eliminate the tuberculosis from Pakistan. Tuberculosis comprises 5.1% of total disease burden of Pakistan. Over the decade lot of work been done in this area but despite all that still significant number of issues related to TB are present and express that this disease have strong link with the socio economic status of people (Link and Phelan 1995), 75% patient were at reproductive age group, many of...
References: Dolin, [edited by] Gerald L. Mandell, John E. Bennett, Raphael (2010). Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett 's principles and practice of infectious diseases(7th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier. pp. Chapter 250. ISBN 978-0-443-06839-3.
Global Tuberculosis Programme. (2010). Global tuberculosis control: WHO report. Global Tuberculosis Programme, World Health Organization.
Habib, F., & Baig, L. (2006). Cost of DOTS for tuberculous patients, Journal Pakistan Medical Association, 56(5),pp 207
Imran Ali Teepu (26 February 2012)
Khan, J. A., & Malik, A. (2003). Tuberculosis in Pakistan: Are We losing the battle?. Tuberculosis.
Kumar V, Abbas AK, Fausto N, Mitchell RN (2007).Robbins Basic Pathology (8th ed.). Saunders Elsevier. pp. 516–522. ISBN 978-1-4160-2973-1
Mahler HT, Mohamed Ali P (1955). "Review of mass B.C.G. project in India". Ind J Tuberculosis 2 (3):pp 108–16.
Multi-drug resistant TB - the big challenge
Stop, T. B. (2006). Partnership and World Health Organization: The Stop TB Strategy: building on and enhancing DOTS to meet the TB-related Millennium Development Goals.
Vermund, S. H., Altaf, A., Samo, R. N., Khanani, R., Baloch, N., Qadeer, E., & Shah, S. A. (2009). Tuberculosis in Pakistan: A decade of progress, a future of challenge. J Pak Med Assoc, 59(4),pp 1-8.
Walley, J. D., Khan, M. A., Newell, J. N., & Khan, M. H. (2001). Effectiveness of the direct observation component of DOTS for tuberculosis: a randomised controlled trial in Pakistan. The Lancet, 357(9257), pp664-669.
WHO (2004). WHO Position Paper on BCG Vaccination. Geneva: WHO.
World Health Organization (2009). "Epidemiology".Global tuberculosis control: epidemiology, strategy, financing. pp. 6–33. ISBN 978-92-4-156380-2. Retrieved 12 November 2009
World Health Organization (2011). "The sixteenth global report on tuberculosis"
Please join StudyMode to read the full document