Truth and validity

Topics: Logic, Nuclear power, Energy development Pages: 4 (906 words) Published: March 10, 2015


Truth and validity Ch.12
Obed Vasquezleon
PHL/458
December 8, 2014
Lori Gardner

Truth and validity Ch.12
Folks often believe they are certain when they make open statements. Many people are sensible enough to circumvent and qualify their statements, as their own opinions about something that person believes. However, not all folks are not skilled at staying unbiased and keeping a full perspective. The scenarios below will show and describe some common faults that folks can think about. The scenarios will follow the corresponding letter item in the textbook for each item. The scenarios I have chosen to evaluate for the truth and validity assignment will be taken from the Applications listed at the end of Ch. 12 in The Art of Thinking. I will be evaluating exercises r, x, and n.

Evaluating for truth and validity will begin with exercise r, “If the Social Security system is further weakened, the elderly will have to fear poverty. Therefore, if the Social Security system is not further weakened, the elderly will not have to fear poverty.” Using the four step evaluation process, I began to checking the example for any hidden premises as well as making sure that the statement was stated fully and in a clear way, I will move on to the next step, checking for mistakes disturbing the truth. Since all elderly are not dependent on Social Security, the statement that all (all is inferred) elderly will fear poverty if the Social Security system is further weakened becomes untrue. Also, the second segment of the statement is still not true because it assumes the only cause of poverty is a decrease or loss of income, when in fact; there are many different reasons for poverty, such as mismanagement of resources caused by anything from addiction to poor financial decisions. The statement becomes more valid if it is changed to read, “If the Social Security system is further weakened, the elderly who depend on it will have to fear poverty. Hence, if the...
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