treating cardiac disease

Powerful Essays
CHAPTER.1
INTRODUCTION

For decades, scientists have been using electromagnetic and sonic energy to serve medicine. But, aside from electro surgery, their efforts have focused on diagnostic imaging of internal body structures—particularly in the case of x-ray, MRI, and ultrasound systems. Lately, however, researchers have begun to see acoustic and electromagnetic waves in a whole new light, turning their attention to therapeutic—rather than diagnostic—applications. Current research is exploiting the ability of radio-frequency (RF) and microwaves to generate heat, essentially by exciting molecules. This heat is used predominantly to ablate cells. Of the two technologies, RF was the first to be used in a marketable device. And now microwave devices are entering the commercialization stage. These technologies have distinct strengths weaknesses that will define their use and determine their market niches. The depth to which microwaves can penetrate tissues is primarily a function of the dielectric properties of the tissues and of the frequency of the micro waves.

CHAPTER.2
HUMAN BODY

The tissue of the human body is enormously varied and complex, with innumerable types of structures, components, and cells. These tissues vary not only with in an individual, but also among people of different gender, age, physical condition, health and even as a function of external in puts, such as food eaten, air breathed, ambient temperature, or even state of minds. From the point of view of RF and Microwaves in the frequency range 10 MHz ~ 10GHz, however biological tissue can be viewed macroscopically in terms of its bulk shape and electromagnetic characteristic: dielectric constant  and electrical conductivity . These are dependent on frequency and very dependent on the particular tissue type.

All biological tissue is somewhat electrically conductive, absorbing microwave power and converting it to heat as it penetrates the tissue.



References: Microwave Magazine, IEEE  (Volume:3 ,  Issue: 1 ) "Ryerson Biomedical Engineering Students Invent Brain-Controlled Prosthetic Arm". STUDY Magazine. 2011-04-01. Retrieved 2011-09-24. W. H. Bancroft, Jr., “Kinetocardiography: past and present,” Bibl.Cardiol. 37, 58–72 (1979). R. Maniewski, Magnetic Examinations of Electrical and Mechanical Cardiac Activity, Ossolineum, Wroclaw (1987). Bronzino, Joseph D. (April 2006). The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Third Edition. [CRC Press]. ISBN 978-0-8493-2124-5. M. Zyczkowski et al., “Using modalmetric fiber optic sensors to monitor the activity of the heart,” Proc. SPIE 7894, 789404 (2011).

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Good Essays

    Treating Chronic Diseases

    • 1016 Words
    • 5 Pages

    Chronic diseases can be secondary to as persistently held conditions that do not cure easily while others are totally incurable. Some of the chronic conditions that affect human beings include cancer, arthritis, obesity, diabetes, and epilepsy. According to the world health organisation (WHO), chronic diseases are the leading causes of deaths in the world. Chronic diseases effects have caused devastation not only in the health sector but the economy as a whole. As the number of people with chronic…

    • 1016 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Chlamydia should be treated dually with doxycycline and azithromycin (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010). The treatment for Gonorrhea is a dual therapy of a single dose of cephalosporin and a single dose of azithromycin for 7 days (Crooks & Baur, 2011). Syphilis should be treated as soon as possible with one of these antibiotics; azithromycin, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, or erythromycin (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010). Doxycycline or azithromycin usually will treat…

    • 507 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    unknown about these ideas and the associations surrounded by children with congenital cardiac disease. On the other hand, this information is fundamentally growing potential interferences to maximize effectiveness for long-standing physical condition and reduce the hazards of becoming extremely over weight in this population. Obesity may create supplementary cardiovascular hazards to children with congenital heart disease. The point of this research is to illustrate the connection among physical activity…

    • 4392 Words
    • 18 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Good Essays

    Cardiac

    • 5913 Words
    • 24 Pages

    * Normally, the cavity between the pericardial layers contains 10-30mL of serous fluid * A pericardial effusion occurs if additional blood or fluid collects in this space. If the amount of fluid continues to increased and cardiac chamber filling is impeded, cardiac tamponade results * VAGUS – major PNS innervation of the heart * CALCIUM – is the main cation affecting electrical stimulation of the heart * THRESHHOLD – is the stimulus that changes the resting membrane * COLD –…

    • 5913 Words
    • 24 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    cardiac

    • 453 Words
    • 2 Pages

    Cardiac Surgeon Cardiac surgeons treat valvular heart diseases such as valve stenosis or vessel insufficiency, ischemic heart disease, coronary artery disease, atherosclerosis and congenital defects. They treat these diseases by repairing or replacing heart valves, widen clogged arteries, repair aortic aneurysms, implant defibrillators and pacemakers, and perform double, triple, quadruple, and sometimes even quintuple heart bypasses. Cardiac surgeons must complete internships and residency requirements…

    • 453 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Cardiac Arrest

    • 781 Words
    • 4 Pages

    Sudden cardiac death happens more these days. There are so many people alone in the United States who just stops breathing with no heart disease involved. So why did their heart stop? There are so many researchers out there trying to figure out the underlying cause of these people who this happen to. There can be other reason why a person’s heart can stop without having a cardiac disease. A person’s body may store minerals that control the arrhythmia of the heart to act a different way.…

    • 781 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Cardiac Catheterization

    • 990 Words
    • 4 Pages

    Cardiac catheterization is often referred to as coronary angiography or a coronary angiogram. It is a radiographic procedure that is used to look at and visualize the heart and the coronary arteries. During a cardiac catheterization it is possible for the cardiologist performing the procedure to see how effectively blood is flowing through the coronary arteries. In addition, this procedure allows the cardiologists to see how blood is moving through the chambers of the heart and how effective the…

    • 990 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Best Essays

    Cardiac Arrest

    • 1766 Words
    • 8 Pages

    M01 11 February , 2012 Cardiac Arrest General Purpose: To inform Specific Purpose: To inform the audience about what is happening in the body during cardiac arrest and what to do if they witness a cardiac event. Central Idea: Bystander CPR and use of an AED, or automated external defibrillator, is the greatest predictor of survival for a person in cardiac arrest. The majority of the general public feel unprepared or unqualified to assist a person in cardiac arrest. Hands only CPR is a…

    • 1766 Words
    • 8 Pages
    Best Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Critical-Cardiac

    • 7510 Words
    • 31 Pages

    Cardiac - E 1 BAPTIST HEALTH School of Nursing NSG 4017: Critical Care Nursing Nursing Management of Patients with Altered Cardiovascular Function Georgia Seward I. Anatomy and physiology review A. Layers B. Chambers C. Heart valves D. Flow of blood E. Blood supply of myocardium 1. RCA 2. L Main 3. LAD 4. Circumflex F. Cardiac cycle 1. Systole 2. Diastole G. Cardiac output and cardiac index - SV x HR. CI = CO /body surface area. 1. Preload 2. Afterload H. Cardiac pressures p. 1557 of Black…

    • 7510 Words
    • 31 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    cardiac tumors

    • 9291 Words
    • 38 Pages

    CARDIAC TUMORS INTRODUCTION Cardiac tumours occur quite rarely, with metastatic neoplasms three times more prevalent than primary tumours. A large variety of benign and malignant tumours of the heart have been described. These tumors are found mainly in the heart, but can occur in the pericardium or the great arteries. Secondary cardiac involvement from malignant tumors of adjacent organs (lung, thymus) or from kidney (Wilms tumor) or liver, or even remote organs, are also seen. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY…

    • 9291 Words
    • 38 Pages
    Powerful Essays