There are two types of trauma, simple or acute trauma and complex or chronic trauma. Acute traumatic events offer at a particular place and time and are usually short-lived. Examples include a road carnage, terrorist attack, loss of a loved one, or a gang-related violence in the community. On the other hand, complex traumatic events occur repeatedly over a long period of time. Examples include domestic violence, long standing sexual and physical abuse, or political wars. Complex trauma typically begins in childhood and extend over and individual’s lifespan.
Trauma ruptures our connection to ourselves either physically, emotionally, mentally and spiritually; to others as in families and social groups; and to nature.
CHILD TRAUMATIC STRESS
Child traumatic stress occurs when children and adolescents are exposed to traumatic events or traumatic situations. This exposure overwhelms their ability to cope with what they have experienced, hence making them feel helpless and hopeless.
An event could be traumatic to one child and not another. Depending on their age, personality, and social support, children respond to traumatic stress in different ways. Children’s capacities to appraise and respond to danger are linked to an evolving neurobiology that consists of brain structures, neurophysiologic pathways, and endocrine systems, which underlie appraisals of dangerous situations, emotional and physical reactions, and protective actions. Traumatic experiences evoke strong biological responses that can persist and that can alter the normal course of neurobiological maturation.
The neurobiological impact of traumatic experiences depends in part on the developmental stage in which they occur. Exposure to multiple traumatic experiences carries a greater