Every Barangay in our town have their own problem. Our problem in our Barangay in the trash in the rivers so I design a Trash trap To trap the trash in the watershed’s. Trash is becoming a larger and larger problem for us and for the environment. As we continue to waste more and more, we use more natural resources and increase pollution in our world.
About 900 million trees are cut down each year to create raw materials for American paper and paper mills. The average American uses 18 tons of paper, 23 tons of wood, 16 tons of metal, and 32 tons of organic chemicals in one lifetime. The oil from an oil change in a car can end up in oceans, sewers, and landfills, contaminating millions of gallons of water. These and other facts show us that our world cannot continue to sustain this amount of waste. Conservation and recycling need to become more frequent actions. (Clean Air Council Waste Facts and Figures, 2006) Despite environmental regulations that protect the quality of streams, lakes, and wetlands, solid waste in the form of trash, litter, and garbage often ends up in these surface waters. Because surface waters collect in low-lying areas, anything that is dropped or blown into a watershed can eventually reach a drainageway. In urban areas, trash and litter (general terms for dry solid waste) often are transported by stormwater runoff. In both urban and rural areas, these items sometimes are illegally dumped directly into a waterbody or wetland, or deposited along riverbanks or lakeshores. Trash also comes from people who fish or participate in other forms of water-related recreation. Regardless of source or type, trash is a form of water pollution . Ironically, in some circumstances, some discarded items (e.g., tires, plastic containers, and nonorganic construction debris) provide habitat for aquatic organisms. However, trash items are unsightly and are a sign of human neglect or disregard for aesthetic values and natural ecosystems . Despite increased environmental awareness, some people still use waterways as a repository for unwanted items, including couches and mattresses; cars and car parts; bicycles; shopping carts; bags of stolen property; fuel containers; and paint cans.
America accounts for over one-third of the world's waste. Most of that trash ends up in landfills. In the United States, one ton of waste per person ends up in landfills each year. Also, about seventy percent of U.S. municipal waste is buried in landfills. The Fresh Kills landfill in New York City is one of the only man-made structures visible from space! (Clean Air Council Waste Facts and Figures, 2006)
Much of our garbage also is dumped into the ocean. About ten percent of all the world's plastic waste ends up in the ocean. Due to ocean currents, most of this plastic gathers in the Pacific Ocean. It also greatly affects marine life. Over a million seabirds and 100 thousand marine mammals die every year from trying to eat these plastics which they mistake for food. (Marks and Howden, 2008)
Recycling and composting are other ways to deal with trash. Both recycling and composting can decrease the use of resources, the amount of pollution in the atmosphere, and the amount of trash which would end up in landfills or the ocean. Recycling can save trees, landfill space, water, energy, oil, and greatly reduce pollution. For example, recycling an aluminum soda can saves 96% of the energy used to make a can from ore, and also decreases by about 96% the amount of air and water pollution emitted from the production of cans from ore. And 1,500 aluminum cans are recycled every second in the U.S. (Clean Air Council Waste Facts and Figures, 2006)
Even though more than thirty percent of household wastes are compostable, most of these go to landfills. Composting can greatly reduce the volume of waste sent to landfills, reduce the amount of pollution created from landfills, and is also an inexpensive way of creating natural fertilizer for plants. Despite these advantages, composting is rarely done by most families. (Clean Air Council Waste Facts and Figures, 2006) The most common litter in U.S. streams is household trash, including plastic cups, plastic bags and wrapping materials, fast-food wrappers, plastic bottles, and other plastic containers. Plastics can be especially hazardous to wildlife. Depending on their form they can either be ingested, causing internal organ failure, or they can cause a slow strangulation. Organic waste (e.g., wood wastes) can have chemical and biological impacts on rivers and streams. Among the many impacts are interfering with the establishment of aquatic plants, affecting the reproductive behavior of fish and other animals, and depleting the water of dissolved oxygen as the wastes decompose. Further, toxic materials can leak or leach out of certain kinds of trash (e.g., pressure-treated lumber, used oil filters, and lead-acid batteries). In the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is charged with protecting the quality of surface waters, including streams, lakes, and coastal waters. The Clean Water Act as amended in 1977 provides the legal basis for the protection of the quality of surface water. The law uses a variety of tools to limit and control direct pollutant discharges into waterways, as well as the disposal of dredge or fill materials. The law also addresses pollutants coming from nonpoint sources (e.g., sediment-laden runoff from a farm field). The control of solid waste falls under a different division within the EPA. The Office of Solid Waste regulates all solid waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), which regulates the treatment and disposal of municipal solid waste and hazardous waste. Households create municipal solid waste, which consists mainly of paper, yard trimmings, glass, and other solid or semisolid materials. Industrial and manufacturing processes create mixtures of municipal solid wastes, hazardous waste, and other wastes such as construction-demolition debris. Some solid wastes, such as animal waste, radioactive materials, or medical waste, are managed by other government agencies and laws. Although RCRA deals with waste once it reaches a regulated facility (such as a landfill), it does not directly address the problem of litter, even when the litter is in a watershed. Similarly, the Clean Water Act does not apply unless the materials are polluting a waterway; that is, it does not apply to trash or debris along a riverbank. Only when trash enters designated waterways and becomes "floatable debris," for example, does it become subject to regulations under the Clean Water Act, the Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act, or other applicable laws. The intended use of a waterbody is considered when deriving a working definition of "pollution," including human-derived litter. For example, if water is primarily designated to support wildlife habitat, oxygen is desirable but toxic compounds are not. But if water is to be converted to steam in a power plant, excess oxygen (that could corrode equipment) would be undesirable, and certain toxic chemicals may not be a concern within this very specific application. Even with regulations that define pollution, sometimes no government or agency is willing to accept responsibility for litter and other debris in waterways. For example, the Rideau Canal and water in Ontario, Canada is a popular destination for boaters and other recreationists. A section of the canal in Ottawa forms the world's longest maintained skating rink. However, as the weather warms and the ice melts, low water levels reveal a variety of debris littering the bottom and floating on the water surface. The National Capital Commission operates the rink and is responsible for keeping it clean during the winter. Once the ice melts, their responsibility ends. During the navigation season, Parks Canada takes over and raises the water level. Other government agencies that share responsibility for the canal say the water quality is good from an ecological perspective: that is, it meets criteria for waters that support ecosystems (e.g., sufficient oxygen and water clarity). If no government agency has the responsibility or resources to clean up the banks of a stream or its littered streambed, then it is the responsibility of nongovernmental organizations and private citizens to do so. There are many opportunities for private citizens to participate in river and stream cleanups. For example, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sponsors an "Adopt-a-Watershed" program. Many states have "green team" or "stream team" opportunities, such as Vermont's Green-Up Day and Northern California's Riverwatch. Volunteers who participate in stream cleanups often report a rewarding experience. In addition to providing an aesthetic and environmental benefit, cleanups reconnect citizens and the community to the waterways that have been a vital part of the nation's history and culture. Research has shown than people are more likely to behave in ways that preserve our waterways if they are clean in the first place. If a stream bank or shoreline already has litter, people are more likely to continue littering. Individuals can take the initiative by cleaning up streamside trash and by disposing of trash properly. Most developed countries have environmental agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and special interest groups that support and participate in environmental protection activities. Environmental regulations have greatly reduced pollution of streams by sewage and by garbage or rubbish (i.e., wet wastes such as food byproducts). However, such efforts often are lacking in developing nations. Waterways in developing countries often are used for dumping household rubbish and commercial wastes. While widespread dumping continues, some localities are beginning to address water-quality issues. In some developing countries, for example, navigable waterways are not only transportation and trade corridors, but also the site of floating villages. Canals often are lined with boats and floating shanties, and the canals are the repository of untreated sewage, rubbish, and trash. Elsewhere, impoverished villages in tributary watersheds dispose their wastes onto the ground or into small creeks, which eventually drain to larger waterbodies. Despite the seemingly dismal outlook for waterways, international aid and governmental efforts are giving hope for local rehabilitation in some areas. For example, the Pasig River in the Philippines received industrial wastes, municipal solid wastes, and garbage. By the early 1990s, the river was considered biologically inactive and had dangerously high counts of fecal coliform . The river was a dark, murky color, and large rafts of floating garbage covered the surface of many river segments. Sunken boats and abandoned barges made navigation difficult and hazardous. Factories and makeshift shacks lined long stretches of the riverbank, as well as tributaries and estuaries . With help from assistance grants from the government of Denmark and the Asian Development Bank, the Pasig River Rehabilitation Commission was established in 1999 by an executive order from Philippines president Joseph Estrada. The government's goal is to upgrade the river's quality so it can sustain aquatic life and can be used for recreation by 2008. The Riverside County Waste Management Department is responsible for the efficient and effective landfilling of non-hazardous county waste. In this effort the Department operates six landfills, has a contract agreement for waste disposal with an additional private landfill, and administers several transfer station leases. Every effort is made to recycle and reuse appropriate items with scrupulous attention to public health and safety. In addition to landfill management, the Department provides a variety of community services. People in the nearby community already recognize the value of Riverside Park. The park is a place where they can seek respite from city life, relax, and enjoy views of the Detroit River. There is also widespread recognition, however, that the park is not meeting some of the current needs of users. The lack of basic facilities and concerns about safety make it difficult for residents to take full advantage of this unique setting. The challenge in revitalizing Riverside Park is to devise solutions that not only address these concerns, but also accentuate the park’s special qualities. In addition, the success of Riverside Park depends on collaboration. The park’s revitalization cannot fall solely on the City of Detroit. While the city’s involvement is essential, its resources remain limited. Even if this were not the case, the success of revitalization efforts would still hinge on the degree of community support for the park. Encouraging responsibility to be shared between the city and the community increases the potential for long-term success and the likelihood that community needs will be met. Fortunately, there are many available resources in the community, including a tremendous amount of human capital and goodwill. Survey respondents have indicated a strong willingness to volunteer just as several community organizations have expressed an interest in holding more events there. These findings hold great promise for the future of Riverside Park, but attention must also be paid to helping individuals feel more comfortable visiting the park. Our recommendations, therefore, are aimed at addressing residents’ concerns while simultaneously building a stronger relationship between the park and the people of nearby neighborhoods. In the next few sections we offer a set of recommendations to address the most prominent issues for the park including comfort (physical safety, cues of safety, and basic needs), amenities, and building community ownership. While organized according to these themes, it is important to note that many of our recommendations address multiple concerns.
Physical safety: The threat of physical danger is a major concern for many community members. Assuaging this concern and ensuring safety will encourage more people to use the park.
•Close the security gate at dusk. Nighttime activity not only adds to people’s perception that the park is unsafe but it also generates a significant amount of litter. Although at one time the gate was closed each evening, this no longer occurs. If the City of Detroit were to close the gate each night, cars would not be able to access the park after dark. •Increase police presence. While police do patrol the park, visits are infrequent and brief, typically lasting about five minutes. Patrolling the park more frequently (and at unpredictable times) may deter illegal activities while increasing the comfort of park visitors. In addition, police may be able to engage with park visitors to help foster a sense of community in the park. Since the police cannot be present at all times, it is important to create the perception that the park is regularly monitored. Posting a sign that indicates that police patrol the area, and that gives people a number to call with complaints, may also help achieve this result. •Add security lighting. Providing night lighting will increase the visibility of activities in the park, discouraging illegal activities and allowing visitors to assess whether they want to enter the park. •Install emergency phones. Emergency phones can address physical security concerns by deterring criminal behaviors, and giving visitors the confidence that help is reachable. •Make the promenade railing childproof. The renovation of the promenade brought with it the installation of a railing along the riverfront. However, the current configuration does not prevent small children from accessing the river’s edge. This places a significant burden on families and community organizations who must watch after more than a few children. Cues of safety: The appearance of the site can lead people to think it is not safe or cared for. Addressing these issues can give the sense that the park is cared for and under close community watch.
•Address littering problem. Litter is a major problem at the park. Furthermore, the presence of litter reinforces the sense that littering is acceptable. While most litter is generated through nighttime activities, it also occurs during the day. While trash receptacles are available in high-use areas, their inconspicuous color may reduce their use. Proper trash disposal could be encouraged in a number of ways that not only discourage litter, but also create the feeling that the park is special. For example, children involved in neighborhood community organizations could paint anti-litter messages on signs or trash cans. In addition, volunteer clean-up days could be regularly scheduled in between the city’s usual maintenance days. •Improve park’s entrance and repave parking lot. The entrance to the park lies at the junction of two streets and a set of railroad tracks, making it difficult to see from the main approach along West Grand Boulevard. Ideally, the layout of the entrance would be changed. Until the resources are found to make that happen, the problem could be partially addressed by moving existing signs to a more prominent location. In addition, the parking lot is currently potholed and poorly drained. In the short term, potholes could be temporarily filled; however, plans should be made to redesign the parking lot with improved drainage.
Basic Needs: The lack of basic facilities is a significant barrier for families and people wishing to use the park for an extended period.
•Install bathrooms. The park’s isolated location makes accessing bathrooms difficult. While permanent bathrooms were highly desired by interviewees and survey respondents, the resources required to build and maintain such facilities are limited. At the least, portable bathrooms should be provided during periods of high use, and a more permanent solution should be found. •Install water fountain. Drinking water is a need of park users, particularly in the summer. Having access to water would make visiting the park more comfortable for families with small children, individuals who spend significant time there, and individuals who use the park to exercise. •Provide shelter. Shelter is necessary to protect park users on hot summer days and encourage extended use. The current lack of shelter forces people to seek respite in their cars, giving the impression that the park is either not occupied or full of people who do not want to be seen. The addition of shade trees, gazebos and/or park shelters would help to meet this need.
Amenities: Currently park visitors are limited in what they can do at the park. Improvements are needed that both facilitate a greater variety of activities and enhance Riverside’s unique features.
•Provide more and different types of seating. Seating in the park is currently concentrated along the riverfront promenade. While this is an attractive location, at present there is little protection from the sun or wind. The lack of tables also makes it difficult for visitors to enjoy a picnic lunch or socialize with others. Additional picnic tables and benches should be placed in locations that offer protection from the elements and/or are near areas of more intense use. •Add landscaping to encourage exploration. Trees and flowers not only enhance the general appearance of the park, but also create a more interesting and complex environment. Currently, the entire park can easily be viewed from the parking lot. Plantings should not entirely hide any portion of the park, since this could present a safety risk. Instead, vegetation that partially screens views could help get individuals out of their cars to explore the park. Provided that vegetation is maintained, its addition may help visitors recognize that the park is regularly cared for. •Add outdoor message centers. Outdoor message centers offer an inexpensive way of advertising events at the park, providing interpretive information, and communicating fish advisories to anglers. These signs will also give the impression that the park is actively maintained and cared for. While there may be concern about vandalism, existing signs at the park remain in good condition. •Renovate playscape. In its current condition, the playground equipment at Riverside is unlikely to attract families with small children. Updating or removing older, rusting equipment and adding some new play elements could be a major attractant for families. If community members were to work together to build elements of the playscape, they would also gain a community-bonding opportunity. •Connect Riverside Park to Clark Park. Residents have expressed an interest in a walking/biking path connecting Riverside to Clark Park. Though such a plan has been proposed through the Southwest Detroit Riverfront Greenway, it has not yet been implemented. A pedestrian/ bike path would increase access from neighborhoods to the riverfront. •Install public artwork. Southwest Detroit has a rich history of public artwork. Local artists and organizations could donate their time to create murals, sculptures, and other art forms. Artwork that captures the cultural diversity of the area as well as the features that make Riverside Park unique might be particularly appropriate.
Community ownership: Creating a sense of shared responsibility gives the park a much greater chance of thriving. Building broad ownership is particularly important given the limited resources of individual organizations.
•Hold community events at the park. Community activities have the potential to alter negative perceptions of Riverside by introducing people to the park in a safe context. Over time these individuals may feel more comfortable visiting on their own and may even encourage friends and family to come. With more people in the park, and thus more vigilance, illegal activities are less likely to occur (see Chapter 5 for further discussion of community events). •Leverage local resources. Local organizations and residents have indicated a strong willingness to volunteer their time at the park. Given the many talents, skills, and resources these volunteers offer, there is a great potential to make revitalization of Riverside Park a cooperative effort between the city and the community. For example, residents could assist with the building of a new playscape. While adults construct and lay out playground equipment, children could be involved in creating artistic accents such as handmade signs and tiles. Residents’ involvement in these types of activities can foster a sense of pride and ownership. By feeling they have made a meaningful contribution, residents may be more likely to visit the park and value it as part of their community. •Encourage public participation. If improvements and support for the park are to be sustained, then the local community must be involved in decision-making. This can range from major decisions, such as how the park should be incorporated into riverfront redevelopment plans, to smaller scale decisions such as the placement of amenities. Form a community coalition to support Riverside Park. A good starting point for getting these recommendations, and other improvements, implemented would be the formation of a community-based group to share the work. Such a coalition could set priorities, coordinate activities, and serve as liaison with the Detroit Recreation Department. We expect that it will be through the action of some form of community coalition that the first steps are taken toward revitalizing Riverside Park. Trash trap is one for the solution for making the river side clean with plastic bottle. The trap is made up of long metal rods that catch litter, large and small.
Riverside Park has not been forgotten by the people Community members have spoken, and they are willing to put forth the effort to reclaim this public space. We have seen glimpses of the park’s potential through our observations of community events and through the enthusiastic comments of study participants. Riverside Park can become a place where people go to relax and mentally restore from their busy lives, where families spend the afternoon picnicking, and where community members congregate for events, large and small. . While the park’s revitalization will require effort, the changes required are within reach. Working together, community groups, individuals, and city staff can help Riverside become a park that is not only more valued, but also a source of great pride for Southwest Detroit. We hope our findings will be of use in that process
Chiras, Daniel D. Environmental Science: A Systems Approach to Sustainable Development, 5th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing, 1998. De Villiers, Marq. Water: The Fate of Our Most Precious Resource. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 2001. Harms, Valerie. The National Audubon Society Almanac of the Environment. New York: Putnam Publishing, 1994. Miller, G. Tyler, Jr. Living in the Environment, 6th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing, 1990. Nadakavukaren, Anne. Our Global Environment: A Health Perspective, 5th ed. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press, 2000. Newton, David. Taking a Stand Against Environmental Pollution. Danbury, CT: Franklin Watts, 1990. Internet Resources
EPA Adopt Your Watershed. .
Northern California River Watch. .
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