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Transplantations And Borderlands

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Transplantations And Borderlands
Transplantations & Borderlands

I The Early Chesapeake
A) The Founding of Jamestown
1) In 1607, three ships from the London Company reached the American coast and founded a town called Jamestown
(i) However, the town was located horribly (geographically & Indian territory)
(ii) They were extremely susceptible to malaria, lacked proper food & housing, and no women were sent with them
2) Jamestown was almost extinct until 1608, when John Smith came to lead the country out of its collapse
B) Reorganization
1) The London Company grew larger and sent 600 people to Jamestown to better the colony
(i) During the journey and arrival many people died, esp. in the “starving time” of 1609-1610
2) The people began to leave until they came across Lord De La Warr, who would become the colonies first governor
(i) De La Warr imposed harsh, strict ruling; when that didn’t work he allowed private enterprise to give people an incentive to work
(ii) New settlements started forming and England’s hold in Virginia kept expanding
C) Tobacco
1) Tobacco from the Americas was in high-demand in Europe (17th century)
(i) Some people didn’t like it though; King James I led A Counterblaste to Tobacco (1604) movement
2) In 1612, John Rolfe began the Tobacco farming craze
D) Expansion
1) In 1618 the English in Virginia launched a tobacco campaign to recruit colonists, known as the “headright system” (new settlers get a lot of land)
(i) Many women, workers, and other people came to the colony to help it expand and prosper
(ii) In about 1619, the first blacks came to America (though they weren’t really considered slaves)
2) The colony was only able to expand due to suppression of the local Indians (who resisted the English expanding process)
(i) Sir Thomas Dale led raids on the Indians and captured Powhatan’s daughter (Pocahontas)
(a) She was converted to Christianity and Married John Rolfe; In England, she started many movements to “civilize” Indians
(b) Powhatan’s brother Opechancanough took power and launched an attack on the English (1622), killing 347 people before retreating
3) The Virginia Company lost all of its power and control
E) Exchanges of Agricultural Territory
1) The English felt they were superior to the Indians (largely because of their advanced technology)
(i) However, the Indian agricultural techniques ultimately saved and sustained Jamestown; the English adopted many of their techniques
2) The English also learned the importance of “maize” (corn) to help survive
F) Maryland & the Calverts
1) Maryland was envisioned by George Calvert (the 1st Lord Baltimore) as a place for catholic freedom, but he died and his son Cecilius (2nd Lord Baltimore) got much power and land
(i) He appoints his brother Leonard Calvert to become governor in the new land
2) The Indians make friends with the foreigners when they arrive
3) To foster migration to the New Colony, Puritans were encouraged to migrate and a policy of religious toleration was adopted
(i) However, tensions emerged between the catholic minority and protestant majority, until civil war broker out in 1655
4) Maryland also adopted a “headright system”, became a center for tobacco cultivation, and used indentured servants and later slaves
G) Turbulent Virginia
1) The Virginia colony was growing, yet a dispute emerged about how to respond to conflicts with Indians as they moved further into their land
2) In 1642, William Berkeley arrived as governor of Virginia
(i) He remained in control and remained popular at first, though his attempts to stop interfering with the Indian’s borders failed as more people came
(ii) By the 1660’s, Berkeley became an autocrat
H) Bacon’s Rebellion
1) Nathaniel Bacon arrived in Virginia in 1673 and after establishing himself as a backcountry gentry, became angry at Berkeley like many others
(i) In 1675 some Doeg Indians attacked the English, the English attacked back, and conflict kept rising until Bacon struck out against the Indians, defying Berkeley’s orders and thus being marked as traitors
(ii) Bacon suddenly died and Berkeley regained control, though the Indians were forced to sign a treaty that opened up some of their land
2) This revealed the potential for instability in the New World/colonies
(i) Wanting to prevent this, land-owning peoples looked towards blacks

II The Growth of New England
A) Plymouth Plantation
1) Some separatists left England to go to Holland, then to the New World
(i) In 1620, the settlers landed on Plymouth
(ii) These people created profound changes (diseases killed Indians, animals depleted for food, domesticated animals brought, etc.)
2) Largely survived because of help from Indians (Squanto, Samoset, etc.)
(i) Led to the 1st thanksgiving; later many people killed from smallpox
(ii) William Bradford repeatedly elected governor
B) The Massachusetts Bay Experiment
1) Charles I replaces James I; Catholicism he pushes later results in civil war
(i) Puritans were frequently persecuted and looked to the new world for escape (formed Massachusetts Bay Company and got a colony)
2) John Winthrop was elected governor, as he lead the expedition in 1630
(i) They created many towns (Boston was primary town though) and in each most people belonged to a congregational church
(ii) A near-theocratic society emerged
3) Though problems were faced, the colony grew rapidly and prospered
C) The Expansion of New England
1) As people came to the new colony, many were not puritan and forced to convert or leave
(i) Thomas Hooker was one of the people who left with his congregation and started Hartford, which later established a colonial government and later a constitution (the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut)
2) Another colony formed around New-Haven also was established, that was even more strict in terms of religion
3) Roger Williams wanted separation of church & state; he was banished and then started Rhode Island in 1644
(i) There they preached religious tolerance to all religions
4) Anne Hutchinson challenged the authority of the religious leaders at the time, and gathered a large following of women
(i) She was gained power and was banished; she went to Rhode Island and later New Netherland
(ii) Alarmed by Hutchinson’s actions, more restrictions were placed by the male clergy; many people then moved to New Hampshire and Maine (established in 1629)
D) Settlers & Natives
1) The Indians were not really a threat to those in New England
(i) The Indians actually helped the English with trading, sharing agricultural techniques, trading food crops, etc.
2) However, many tensions emerged as the whites wanted to take more land
(i) The Puritan viewpoints adopted by the New Englanders made them view the Indians more as “savages” and believe they needed to convert, disperse, or kill them
3) Indians were frequently dying off, from initial disease and now less land and food and animals due to the white’s expansion
E) The Pequot War, King Phillip’s War, and the Technology of Battle
1) The Pequot war started in 1637, when competition over land and trade with the Dutch among the English and Pequot Indians in the Connecticut Valley led to brutal fighting
(i) The English set the Pequot stronghold afire and almost wiped out the Pequot tribe
2) The worst encounter was in 1675 (King Phillip’s War), when the Wampanoags under King Phillip (Metacomet) attacked the English (feeling that attack was the only way to stop their land incursions) and killed many people and burned many towns
(i) The whites retaliated and eventually won in 1676
(ii) The wampanoags were left defeated and powerless to the English
3) The Dutch and French now also began to pose threats to the English
4) The wars were made more brutal by the earlier exchange of technology (Flintlock Musket Rifle) and building impressive forts (by Narragansetts)
(i) However, despite the technological advances for the Indians they were no match for the number and firepower of the English

III The Restoration Colonies
A) The English Civil War
1) The English could not focus on their New World colonies (Virginia, Massachusetts, Maryland, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Hampshire)
2) Opposition started with James, but trouble & tensions between parliament and monarchy emerged under Charles I
(i) He dissolved parliament (1629) and ruled w/out it as an absolute monarch who alienated many of his people (Puritans)
(ii) Then he brought it back again for money & dismissed it 2 years later
(iii) Then parliament retaliated (Puritan Roundheads) against the King (Cavaliers)
(iv) Then Oliver Cromwell (from Parliament) took the throne
3) Later, Charles II took the throne and resumed colonization
(i) He began 4 additional colonies (Carolina, New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania)
(ii) New goal of colonies was permanent settlements for power and gold
B) The Carolinas
1) Carolina was given to 8 proprietors by Charles II, who received almost complete authority
(i) Hoped to attract settlers with religious and political freedom
(ii) This failed, and most people quit except Anthony Cooper (founded Charles Town)
(a) The Fundamental Constitution for Carolina (1669) was developed by Shaftesbury and Locke: this didn’t actually have any impact though
2) The Carolinas were not united except for name (North: relatively undeveloped farmers; South- aristocracy, great economy, etc.)
(i) South traded rice and other goods with the English land of Barbados
(ii) The Carolinas remained as some of the most unstable colonies in America
C) New Netherland, New York, and New Jersey
1) Conflict emerged between the English and the Dutch in the New World over land and trade
(i) In 1664, a fleet under Richard Nicolls forced a surrender in New Amsterdam from the unpopular governor Peter Stuyvesant (Articles of Capitulation)
(a) Though the Dutch later took back New Amsterdam they lost it for good (1674)
2) New York, ruled by James (brother of Charles II) was very diverse
(i) Though local governments and religious toleration was established, power disputes emerged: the wealthy landowning class had much power, and NY would remain very divided but would grow rapidly
3) James gave much land to Sir John Berkeley and Sir George Carteret, who created New Jersey but later gave it back to the crown
(i) New Jersey was very diverse but did not have any important cities and was mostly made up of small farmers
D) The Quaker Colonies
1) Pennsylvania was born because Protestants wanted their own home
2) The Society of Friends emerged, with their followers known as Quakers (“Inner light”; different from puritans- women, no predestination)
(i) Quakers are most anarchistic and democratic; disliked by others
(ii) William Penn was attracted to Quakerism; got much land and authority from Charles II (Pennsylvania)
(a) Attracted many people but never profited
3) Penn also created Philadelphia, which he largely gave to the Indians
(i) This prevented conflict, while the colony prospered
4) In the 1690s people started to resist the near-absolute power of the government
(i) In response, Penn granted the Charter of Liberties (1701): established a representative assembly and limited the proprietor's power
(ii) The three “lower counties” also got their own representative assembly, essentially making them a new colony in 1703 (Delaware)

IV Borderlands & Middle Groups
A) The Caribbean Islands
1) Throughout the beginning of the 17th century, most English settled on Islands in the Caribbean
(i) Indians were never a significant factor in settling there: most were wiped out by disease when Columbus came
(ii) The Spanish inhabited the largest Islands, and were distracted from the outsiders on the smaller islands by the 1621 war with the Dutch
(a) The English prospered on Antigua, St. Kitts, Jamaica, Barbados, etc. but where constantly targeted by other nations
2) Sugar farming became very popular there
3) As a result, African slaves were frequently imported to do the work and soon outnumbered the whites there
B) Masters and Slaves in the Caribbean
1) Due to the large proportion of black slaves to white landowners on the Islands, people became fearful of slave revolts (which happened more frequently now)
(i) Harsh laws and legal codes were enacted to give whites complete control and authority over the slaves
2) There was a lack of stability in these places, as wealthy whites frequently left, the slaves frequently died, and there were few women for marriage
(i) Slaves however, developed families, kept African religion, etc.
3) These places were markets to sell slaves to & could sell sugar to colonies
C) The Southwestern Borderlands
1) The Spanish were mostly established in Mexico and further south (where they flourished), but not really in the U.S
(i) The nations they owned (FL, TX, NM, CA, etc.) were weak and divided
(ii) New Mexico, prospered (compared to others) due to help from natives
2) The Spanish moved up the West coast later on, creating forts or trading communities as they went
(i) They killed off much of the native population due to disease, forced many others to convert, and overworked others as slaves
3) The Spanish felt threatened by the French, who were moving south down the Mississippi, and tried to secure Texas by building forts and settlements (San Fernando)
(i) Missionaries also helped take much land from Arizona for the Spanish, though their attempts to convert were usually unsuccessful
4) Ultimately, many Spanish created permanent colonies in the Southwest
(i) This is largely because they worked with the Natives there, and didn’t view them as obstacles like other nations (though still not as equals)
D) The Southeast Borderlands
1) A more direct challenge to the English lay in the Spanish controlled lands of the Southeast
(i) The Spanish moved upwards from Florida into Georgia and were possibly moving more, but the English settlement in Jamestown threatened them
(a) Much tension emerged in Florida and Georgia as the English presence there kept increasing: Though no formal war was fought, tensions kept rising and attacks (1668 English raid on St. Augustine) occurred
(ii) After both sides tried to recruit natives and slaves, the Spanish were eventually driven out from Florida and later became more dependent on natives and Africans on the islands they were confined to
2) In the aftermath of The Seven Years War, the English finally got Florida
E) The Founding of Georgia
1) Georgia was founded by a group led by James Oglethorpe, who wanted to build a southern border against the Spanish and provide refuge for poor
(i) This was urgently needed in the beginning of the 18th century, when tensions where flaring between the English and Spanish and fighting broke out (1701- War of Spanish Succession)
(ii) After getting approval from King George II in 1732, Oglethorpe made the first trek to Georgia in 1733 where the land was designed for strictly military purposes (no Catholicism, no rum, no slaves, etc.)
2) Unrest in the colonies due to the absolute power of Oglethorpe and military failures led to mass change (slavery-1750, representative assembly- 1751, etc.), allowing Georgia to start growing slowly
F) Middle Grounds
1) There was also conflict between Europeans and Indians (East- Europe dominated, West- mutual agreements & ”middle grounds”)
(i) French were good at creating mutually beneficial relationships,
2) More British came; European influence grew and later dominated the Indians

V The Evolution of the British Empire
A) The Drive for Reorganization
1) Uniting/Reorganizing the English colonies would help better develop Mercantilism
2) To improve mercantilism, England must sever all trade between the colonies and other nations
(i) Charles II adopted 3 Navigation Acts:
(a) 1 (1660)- colonies can only trade with the English
(b) 2 (1663)-Goods being shipped to the colonies must pass through England, making them taxable
(c) 3 (1673)- Customs officials can appoint the other acts
3) Ultimately, mercantilism benefitted both England and its colonies
B) The Dominion of New England
1) Charles II makes Massachusetts a royal colony to better control it
2) James II (1686) created a Dominion of New England: combines Massachusetts, New England, New York, and New Jersey
(i) Headed by Sir Edmund Andros: very strict and harsh, unpopular
C) The “Glorious Revolution”
1) James II makes enemies in England by Increasing Catholicism and trying to control Parliament; makes son catholic
2) People angry; appoint Mary and William of Orange to rule (James II flees)
3) Colonists end the Dominion of New England and restore separate colonial governments
(i) Jacob Leisler takes over NY (1689) but is removed by William and Mary; NY politics are divided for many years after
(ii) John Coode revolts against Lord Baltimore in Maryland for Protestantism; gets approval as a royal colony and chooses committee to run govt.
(a) Establishes the Church of England as official religion
4) Colonies ultimately broke away from previous attempt at unification
(i) Legitimize idea that colonists have some rights in the empire and the English need to recognize their laws affect them

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