Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text.
➢ General Oxford Dictionary:
Translation n 1 the act or an instance of translating. 2 a written or spoken expression of the meaning of a word, speech, book, etc. in another language.
➢ Dictionary of Translation Studies:
Translation: An incredibly broad notion which can be understood in many different ways. For example, one may talk of translation as a process or a product, and identify sub-types as literary translation, technical translation, subtitling and machine translation; moreover, while more typically it just refers to the transfer of written texts, the term sometimes also includes interpreting.
➢ Free Online Dictionary: trans·la·tion (tr[pic]ns-l[pic][pic]sh[pic]n)
1. a. The act or process of translating, especially from one language into another.
b. The state of being translated.
2. A translated version of a text.
➢ Elook.org [noun] a written communication in a second language having the same meaning as the written communication in a first language. Synonyms: interlingual rendition, rendering, version
In his seminal paper, ‘On Linguistic Aspects of Translation’ (Jakobson 1959/2000), the Russo-American linguist Roman Jakobson makes a very important distinction between three types of written translation:
1. Intralingual translation- translation within the same language, which can involve rewording or paraphrase. 2. Interlingual Translation- Translation from language to another, and 3. Intersemiotic Translation- Translation of the verbal sign by a non-verbal sign, e.g music or image.
Only the second category, interlingual translation, is deemed ‘translation proper’ by Jackobson.
Theories of Translation
Eugene A. Nida
Discussions about theories of translation are too often concerned