(University of Delhi)
Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text.
Semantic Translation: Semantic translation takes advantage of semantics that associate meaning with individual data elements in one dictionary to create an equivalent meaning in a second system.
Literal Translation: Literal translation, or directed translation, is the rendering of text from one language to another "word-for-word" (Latin: "verbum pro verbo") with or without conveying the sense of the original.
Functional Translation: Functional approach to translation values the context and desist from treating language merely as a code.
Official translation: A complete and accurate translation into English from the issuing language.
Dynamic equivalence (or functional equivalence) conveys the essential thoughts expressed in a source text.
In this, translator focuses more on the culture and linguistics expression. FORMAL EQUIVALENCE:
Formal equivalence focuses attention on the message itself, in both form and content.
While the translator is trying to find formal equivalence, he or she is closely following the form, content and structure.
Legal translation is the translation of texts within the field of law. As law is a culture-dependent subject field, the work of legal translation and its products are not necessarily linguistically transparent.
It is important to note almost all the original drafts at the centre and states level are usually prepared in English and then got translated into Hindi. But the original' text (i.e. the English version) is called the 'translated text', whereas the translated text (i.e. the Hindi version) is known as the 'original one.
Points to be taken care at time of translation