Translation

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TRANSLATION: The process of turning an original or "source" text into a text in another language.
TRANSLATION TECHNIQUES
Direct Translation Techniques are used when structural and conceptual elements of the source language can be transposed into the target language. Direct translation techniques include: * Borrowing * Calque * Literal Translation
Borrowing
Borrowing is the taking of words directly from one language into another without translation. For example software, funk. English also borrows numerous words from other languages; abbatoire, café, passé and résumé from French; hamburger and kindergarden from German; bandana, musk and sugar from Sanskrit.
Calque
A calque or loan translation is a phrase borrowed from another language and translated literally word-for-word. Examples that have been absorbed into English include standpoint and beer garden from German Standpunkt and Biergarten; breakfast from French déjeuner.
Literal Translation
A word-for-word translation can be used in some languages and not others dependent on the sentence structure: El equipo está trabajando para terminar el informe would translate into English as The team is working to finish the report. Sometimes it works and sometimes it does not. And one sentence can be translated literally across languages does not mean that all sentences can be translated literally. El equipo experimentado está trabajando para terminar el informe translates into English as The experienced team is working to finish the report ("experienced" and "team" are reversed).
Oblique Translation Techniques
Oblique Translation Techniques are used when the structural or conceptual elements of the source language cannot be directly translated without altering meaning or upsetting the grammatical and stylistics elements of the target language.
Oblique translation techniques include: * Transposition * Modulation * Reformulation or Equivalence * Adaptation * Compensation

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