Application of TG-grammar in Banked Cloze Testing
由乔姆斯基提出的转换生成语法在语言学研究领域做出了突出贡献。 乔姆斯基将语言定义为一套规则系统， 并且认为语言学的研究目的就在于从母语使用者的语言中归纳处一套生成语法，从而按照此语法规则生成更多的语句。转换生成语法中的词组结构规则能够分析和限定词组成分以生成各种形式的语句，其中不乏形式错误的语句。根据转换生成语法，次分类可以对词组成分的语法和语义属性进行描述，从而避免形式错误的语句的产生。正式基于这套科学系统的理论，集库型完形填空题的被测者能够运用这一理论，通过词组结构规则判定词组成分的词性进而对其进行语法和词义属性进行描述，甄别出符合上下文的正确词语。因此，词组结构和此分类语言可应用到集库型完形填空的解题技巧中，得以广泛推广。 关键词：转换生成语法；词组结构规则；次分类；集库型完形填空测试 Abstract
Transformational-Generative Grammar, proposed by Noam Chomsky, contributed a lot in the development of linguistics study. Chomsky defines language as a set of rules or principles and believes that the aim of linguistics is to produce a generative grammar which captures the tactic knowledge of the native speaker of his language. Phrase structure rules is one set of the important transformational-generative rules. It restricted the constitutes of a sentence to produce well-formed and ill-formed sentences. Then the ill- formed sentences can be eliminated by subcategorization which can describe the grammatical and semantic property of the word in the phrase. Based on this scientific and systematic theory, testees who take the banked cloze can follow the rules to select appropriate words to fill the blanks through determining the part of speech and subcategorizing of the words. The phrase structure rules can be widely used in taking the banked cloze testing as strategy. Key words: TG-grammar；phrase structure rule；subcategory；banked cloze testing I. Theoretical basis
1.1 The definition of TG-grammar
Noam Chomsky tried to open up a new route when he found that classification of structural elements of language according to distribution and substitution had its limitation. From this practice Chomsky gradually established Transformational- Generative (TG) Grammar. The publication of his Syntactic Structures (1957) marked the beginning of the Chomsky Revolution. With the Publication of Syntactic Structures，Noam Chomsky, who was a young American linguist then，aroused a world-wide interest among scientists，especially linguists. His biographer said that his theories, right or wrong, had great significance and was so influential that no linguists could overlook them if they wanted to keep pace with the development of contemporary linguistics. And at the same time, quite a few people did not quite agree with him. Chomsky’s TG-grammar differs from the structural grammar in a number of ways: (1) rationalism; (2) innateness; (3) deductive methodology; (4) emphasis on interpretation; (5) formalization; (6) emphasis on linguistic competence; (7) strong generative powers; (8) emphasis on linguistic universals. First, Chomsky defines language as a set of rules or principles. Second, Chomsky believes that the aim of linguistics is to produce a generative grammar which captures the tactic knowledge of the native speaker of his language. This concerns the question of learning theory and the question of linguistic universals. What’s more, Chomsky’s methodology is hypothesis-deductive, which operates at two levels: (a) the linguist formulates a hypothesis about language structure — a general linguistic theory; this is tested by grammars for particular languages, and (b) each such grammar is a hypothesis on the general linguistic theory. Finally, Chomsky follows rationalism in philosophy and mentalism in psychology. The term Transformational Generative Grammar is used to refer to Noam Chomsky’s theories about syntax. As Chomsky was much influenced by mathematics, a language was defined as a set (finite or infinite) of sentences. That is to say, any language is made up of a number of well-formed sentences. These sentences could be infinite, since it is possible to keep making new sentences. According Chomsky, his Grammar is Generative, since it can generate or create an infinite number of sentences. It is called Transformational since a basic or simple sentence. He believes that every speaker of language has...
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