When people are put in tough situations, they are forced to adapt to their surroundings. The Metamorphosis demonstrates a particular theme that shows how people change when they are faced with hardships and sufferings. In the novella, Gregor transforms into a bug because of the pressure that results from his very dependent family and his job. Gregor’s sister, Grete, and their father, Mr. Samsa, also change their behavior and attitude because of the distress Gregor’s transformation adds to their family. Through the use of the transformation of characters in the novella, The Metamorphosis, Franz Kafka portrays the idea that people change under pressure.
Throughout the novella, Kafka constantly mentions Gregor’s job and his roles at work. His whole life is revolved around the company and he has no social life because of it. Due to all of this pressure and stress, Gregor changes form. Kafka opens the story with, “When Gregor Samsa awoke in his bed one morning from unquiet dreams, he found himself transformed into an enormous insect” (945). This shows that over time Gregor gets tired of the strain and anxiety that his job creates for him. His alienation is the result of his long working hours and the lack of affection and affirmation he receives from everyone surrounding him. After Gregor wakes up, he hears the doorbell ring and he attempts to get up. When Gregor finally opens the door and reveals his new transformation to his family and the Deputy Director he observes that, “On the wall just opposite hung a photograph of Gregor from his military days, which showed him dressed as a lieutenant, with a carefree smile, his hand on his dagger, his bearing and his uniform commanding respect” (953). Before Gregor’s strict work life, for once, he is content with his life because he is a member of the military. However, when he gets a job to provide for his parents and sister, he is no longer able to live a carefree life. Gregor is held