Introduction of the Topic
TRANSFER PRICING is a term used to describe all aspects of inter Company pricing arrangements between related business entities, and commonly applies to inter Company transfers of tangible and intangible property. Inter Company transactions across borders are growing rapidly and are becoming much more complex.
Transfer pricing refers to the internal pricing system that is used when divisions in the same firm deliver products or services to each other. The transfer price is a cost for the receiving division and revenue for the supplying division, so it affects the financial result of both divisions involved. Transfer prices can be based on market prices, but for various reasons a market-based transfer price might not be appropriate: transactions taking place between the divisions of the same firm are often unique and would not be offered stand-alone on the market. In practice, therefore, cost-based and negotiated transfer prices are used apart from market-based prices.
Transfer pricing, for tax purposes, is the pricing of inter Company transactions that take place between affiliated businesses. The transfer pricing process determines the amount of income that each party earns from that transaction. Taxpayers and the taxing authorities focus exclusively on related-party transactions, which are termed controlled transactions, and have no direct impact on independent-party transactions, which are termed uncontrolled transactions. Transactions, in this context, are determined broadly, and include sales, licensing, leasing, services, and interest
In India also, considering the importance of Transfer Pricing, Section 92 of the Income-tax Act, 1961 (‘the Act’) empowered tax authorities to make adjustments to income on arm’s length basis in case of transactions between residents and nonresidents having ‘close connection’. Also, section 40A (2) (a) was introduced in the Statute, giving powers to the
References: 7th edition, Sahitya Bhavan Publications, Agra Articles Studied Explanatory Memorandum, Economic Times, 7th July, 2009 ----------------------- Sales in Cash Payment by Draft or Cheque Realization of Payment