transactional analysis

Topics: Transactional analysis, Games People Play, Eric Berne Pages: 5 (3522 words) Published: October 31, 2014
Transactional Analysis The following is an introductory description of Transactional Analysis. It is designed to be understood by the layperson, written with approximately the same level of complexity that Berne used forGames People Play. Psychoanalysis before Eric Berne While there were many theories purporting to explain human behavior before HYPERLINK http// o Biography of Eric Berne Eric Berne,the most frequently cited and known is the work of Sigmund Freud. Freud emerged in the early 20th century with his theories about personality. Freud believed that personality had three components, all of which must work together to produce our complex behaviors. These three components or aspects were theId,Ego, and theSuperego. It was Freuds belief that these three components needed to be well-balanced to produce reasonable mental health and stability in an individual. According to Freud, the Id functions in theirrationalandemotionalpart of the mind, the Ego functions as therationalpart of the mind, and the Superego can be thought of as themoralpart of the mind, a manifestation of societal or parental values. But perhaps Freuds greatest contribution (and the one that influenced Berne) was the fact that the human personality ismulti-faceted.Regardless of the classification or name given to a particular area of personality (id, superego, etc.), each individual possesses factions that frequently collide with each other. And it is these collisions and interactions between these personality factions that manifest themselves as an individuals thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. Thus, under Freuds theories, an individuals behavior can be understood by analyzing and understanding his/her three factions. But in a point to be emphasized later in this paper, Dr. Berne believes that Freuds proposed structures are concepts and not phenomenological realities1 Another scientist whose contributions impacted Dr. Berne in his development of Transactional Analysis is HYPERLINK http// o Wilder Penfield Biography Dr. Wilder Penfield,a neurosurgeon from McGill University in Montreal. Penfields experiments focused on the application of electrical currents to specific regions of the brain. Penfield discovered that, when applying current to the temporal lobe of live and alert patients, he would stimulate meaningful memories. In addition, not only were vivid pictures of that persons past revealed, but also thefeelings and emotionsassociated with that event were uncovered.These patients would recite these events, even though in many cases they were events that the patients were unable to recollect on their own. Penfield carried out these and similar experiments for many years. Some of the key conclusions that he reached that went on to influence Berne in his development of Transactional Analysis include The human brain acts in many ways like a camcorder, vividly recording events. While that event may not necessarily be able to be consciously retrieved by the owner, the event always exists in the brain. Both theeventand thefeelings experienced during that eventare stored in the brain. The event and the feelings are locked together, and neither one can be recalled without the other. When an individual replays his or her experiences, he or she can replay them in such a vivid form that the individual experiences again the same emotions he or she felt during the actual experience. Or, as Bernes student HYPERLINK http// o Im OK Youre OK by Thomas A. Harris Thomas A. HarrissaidI not only remember how I felt, I feel the same way now2 Individuals are able to exist in two states simultaneously. Individuals replaying certain events are able to experience the emotions associated with those events, but they are also able to objectively talk about the events at the same time. These contributions by Penfield and Freud, as well as many...
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