Total quality management is a management approach centred on quality, based on the participation of an organisation's people and aiming at long term success. This is achieved through customer satisfaction and benefits all members of the organisation and society.
A SHORT PAST OF TQM
• 1920s: Businesses clearly separated the processes of
planning and carrying out the plan, the hawthorne
experiments in the late 1920s showed how worker
productivity could be impacted by participation.
• 1930s: Walter Shewhart developed the methods for
statistical analysis and control of quality.
• 1950s: W. Edwards Deming taught methods for
statistical analysis and control of quality to Japanese
engineers and executives.
• 1968: The Japanese named their approach total quality
to companywide quality control. Kaoru Ishikawa’s
synthesis of the philosophy contributed to Japan’s
ascendancy as a quality leader.
• Today: TQM is the name for the philosophy of a broad
and systemic approach to managing organizational
• TQM is a philosophy which applies equally to all
parts of the organization
• TQM places the customer at the forefront of quality
• Greater emphasis on the roles and responsibilities
of every member of staff within an organization
• All staff are empowered
ELEMENTS OF TQM
– Top management vision, planning and support.
• Employee involvement
– All employees assume responsibility for the
quality of their work.
• Product/Process Excellence
– Involves the process for continuous improvement.
(*In toyota every staff both employee and repairman or IT, toyota does not keep stocks at warehouse and workers attend decision making process. )
• Continuous Improvement
A concept that recognizes that quality improvement
is a journey with no end
• Customer Focus on “Fitness for Use”
Specific characteristics of a product that
determine its value in the marketplace.
The degree to which a product meets its design
TQM Vs Traditional Quality Management
Lack of communication
Control of staff
Inspection & fire
Internal focus on rule
External focus on
Solving problems at
• Technical Quality versus Functional Quality
Technical quality — the core element of the good or service. Functional quality — good functions or the service is delivered. • Expectations and Perceptions
Customers’ prior expectations and their perception of service performance affect their satisfaction with a service.
Satisfaction = (Perception of Performance) – (Expectation) !! It is aimed and intentioned that prior expectation would be lower the perception of good or service that was confronted…
• Philosophy that looks for never-ending improvements to the process of converting inputs into outputs.
• Kaizen: Japanese
word for continuous
• The Deming cycle: Originally developed by Walter Shewart, but renamed in 1950s because Deming promoted it extensively.
• Plan – Study the current system; identifying problems; testing theories of causes; and developing solutions.
• Do – Plan is implemented on a trial basis. Data collected and documented. • Study – Determine whether the trial plan is working correctly by evaluating the results.
• Act – Improvements are standardized and final plan is implemented.
Quality circles (an approach for solution)
• Teams of workers and supervisors that meet regularly to address workrelated problems involving quality and productivity. • small day-to-day problems are given to quality circles. workers are most familiar with the routine tasks, they are asked...
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