flection: refers to the fact that a brand is a customer reflection. Reflecting the customer does however not mean the same as describing the target, rather the customer should be reflected as he or she wishes to be seen as a result of using a brand. The brand owner should not require advertising to show the targeted buyers as they really are, but how they wish to be. All brands must control their customer reflection as consumers use brands to build their own identity (Kapferer, 2004). While reflection is the target’s outward mirror, self-image refers to the target’s own internal mirror. A person develops a certain type of inner relationship with him or herself through the attitude towards particular brands.
2.1 Introduction To Tourism
Terrorism, natural disasters, health scares, oil price rises, exchange rate fluctuations and economic and political uncertainties – these were just some of the issues faced by tourism industry in 2005. Yet, according to the news from World Tourism Organization (UNWTO, 2006a, Dec 13), international tourist arrivals beat all expectations in exceeding 800 millions and achieving an all-time record. Although world tourism growth was moderate in 2005, it was still almost one-and-a-half percentage points above the long-term average annual growth rate of 4.1%, which means a consolidation of the bumper growth achieved in 2004 (+10%). Tourism has transformed itself into a successful industry, and today is one of the largest economic sectors in the world, representing “3-5% of GDP, jobs and investment in industrialised states and up to 30% in developing states, representing a socioeconomic lifeline for the poorest states as it is a top export” (UNWTO, 2006b, Nov 28).
Again according to World Tourism Organization (WTO 2006) substantial increase of tourism activities indicates the potential of the industry. Tourism industry depends largely on the economy of a given market. According to Etienne and Binns (2002), service sectors have received a considerable impetus from distinguished consumers preference, choice and wealth. Tourism is one of the emerging sectors that have taken a lead. The growth of other sectors in the economy complements tourism industry at large. Statistically the increase of consumer’s income fuels expenditure patterns in many economic sectors particularly tourism activities. Tourism has been identified as one of the economy drivers for most countries. This emerging sector is currently comparable to other competitive economic sectors as telecommunication industry etc. Apparently, most countries are striving to promote their destinations abroad. International promotion is carried through different media vehicles depending with image situation.
The WTO has a vision that captures most of place marketer’s attention. According to the WTO by the year 2020 international arrival will reach to approximately 1.56 billion. Out of the projected number, intraregional number is expected to increase to 1,2 billion. Hence, long haul travellers alone is projected to reach 0.4 billion. Notably, statistics shows that long haul travellers will grow at the rate of 5.4 percent per year, between the years 1995 – 2020. This forecast for growth of long haul opens an avenue for distant destinations as South Africa and others WTO (2006). Among other regions that are projected to become beneficiaries of this the trend with annual growth of 5 %, includes Sub-Saharan Africa, Middle East, East Asia and the Pacific.
Cabrini (2002) identified some general trends of world tourism development: there is a clear tendency toward shorter stays when going on holidays, but “greater fragmentation of holidays” for reduction in working hours and an increase of paid leave days. This means modern tourists might travel several times throughout one year for a shorter duration. The climate change in terms of wider economic, political and environmental...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document