1. Country Background
2. Literature Review of Sustainable Tourism
At the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, Agenda 211 was adopted by 182 countries and sets out a comprehensive blueprint of actions to be taken globally, nationally and locally by organisations of the United Nations (UN), governments, and major groups in every area to bring about sustainable development. Stakeholders of the travel and tourism industry including world organisations, governments and industries started to include sustainable development principles into their agendas and the concept of sustainable tourism has gathered momentum ever since. The World Tourism Organisation (WTO) Committee on Sustainable Development of Tourism defines sustainable tourism as: “Development that meets the needs of present tourists and host regions while protecting and enhancing opportunities for the future. It is envisaged as leading to management of all resources in such a way that economic, social and aesthetic needs can be fulfilled while maintaining cultural integrity, essential ecological processes, biological diversity and life support systems2”. The Johannesburg Summit on Sustainable Development in 20023 led the way for WTO to revise the definition of sustainable tourism in 2004. They define sustainable tourism as: “Sustainable tourism development guidelines and management practices are applicable to all forms of tourism in all types of destinations, including mass tourism and the various niche tourism segments. Sustainability principles refer to the environmental, economic and socio-cultural aspects of tourism development, and a suitable balance must be established between these three dimensions to guarantee its long-term sustainability4.” Thus, according to WTO, sustainable tourism should:
Make optimal use of environmental resources that constitute a key element in tourism development, maintain essential ecological processes and help to conserve natural resources and biodiversity....
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