TOURISM

Topics: Slavery, Capitalism, Human trafficking Pages: 42 (15046 words) Published: September 21, 2014
S P D I S C U S S I O N PA P E R

Summary Findings
Human trafficking, as it is defined by international law, subsumes all forms of nonconsensual exploitation. That is, whenever people are forced or lured into exploitation – no matter if movement of victims is involved – it is considered human trafficking. There is, though, a large overlap with consensual exploitation, namely when economic vulnerabilities force victims to accept exploitative work arrangements. Consensual exploitation is mostly addressed through social and labor law, which is also an area where the World Bank has ample experience, while nonconsensual exploitation is mainly addressed through criminal law. Both types of exploitation have adverse effects on equity and efficiency and are therefore obstacles to development. The World Bank could consider strengthening its efforts on nonconsensual exploitation, in particular in the area of access to justice for the poor and empowering vulnerable groups to demand justice and good

governance. In addition, there is a need to enhance the knowledge on prevalence, causes, and consequences of nonconsensual exploitation. In doing so, the World Bank should seek partnerships to complement existing initiatives and expertise, but should also consider providing leadership in the fight against exploitation and human trafficking. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT NETWORK

About this series...
Social Protection Discussion Papers are published to communicate the results of The World Bank’s work to the development community with the least possible delay. The typescript manuscript of this paper therefore has not been prepared in accordance with the procedures appropriate to formally edited texts. The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed herein are those of the author(s), and do not necessarily reflect the views of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank and its affiliated organizations, or those of the Executive Directors of The World Bank or the governments they represent. The World Bank does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this work. For free copies of this paper, please contact the Social Protection Advisory Service, The World Bank, 1818 H Street, N.W., MSN G7-703, Washington, D.C. 20433 USA. Telephone: (202) 458-5267, Fax: (202) 614-0471, E-mail: socialprotection@worldbank.org or visit the Social Protection website at www.worldbank.org/sp .

NO. 0911

Human Trafficking,
Modern Day Slavery,
and Economic Exploitation

Johannes Koettl

May 2009

HUMAN TRAFFICKING, MODERN DAY SLAVERY,
AND ECONOMIC EXPLOITATION
A Discussion on Definitions, Prevalence, Relevance for Development, and Roles for the World Bank in the Fight Against Human Trafficking Johannes Koettl ∗

ABSTRACT: Human trafficking, as it is defined by international law, subsumes all forms of nonconsensual exploitation. That is, whenever people are forced or lured into exploitation – no matter if movement of victims is involved – it is considered human trafficking. There is, though, a large overlap with consensual exploitation, namely when economic vulnerabilities force victims to accept exploitative work arrangements. Consensual exploitation is mostly addressed through social and labor law, which is also an area where the World Bank has ample experience, while nonconsensual exploitation is mainly addressed through criminal law. Both types of exploitation have adverse effects on equity and efficiency and are therefore obstacles to development. The World Bank could consider strengthening its efforts on nonconsensual exploitation, in particular in the area of access to justice for the poor and empowering vulnerable groups to demand justice and good governance. In addition, there is a need to enhance the knowledge on prevalence, causes, and consequences of nonconsensual exploitation. In doing so, the World Bank should seek partnerships to complement existing initiatives and expertise, but should also consider...

Bibliography: 1
See ILO (2005).
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