TQM is composed of three paradigms:
* Total: Organization wide * Quality: With its usual Definitions, with all its complexities (External Definition) * Management: The system of managing with steps like Plan, Organize, Control, Lead, Staff, etc.
As defined by the International Organization for Standards (ISO):
"TQM is a management approach for an organization, centered on quality, based on the participation of all its members and aiming at long-term success through customer satisfaction, and benefits to all members of the organization and to society."
In Japan, TQM comprises four process steps, namely:
1. Kaizen Focuses on Continuous Process Improvement, to make processes visible, repeatable and measurable. 2. Atarimae Hinshitsu The idea that things will work as they are supposed to (e.g. a pen will write.). 3. Kansei Examining the way the user applies the product leads to improvement in the product itself. 4. Miryokuteki Hinshitsu The idea that things should have an aesthetic quality which is different from "atarimae hinshitsu" (e.g. a pen will write in a way that is pleasing to the writer.)
TQM requires that the company maintain this quality standard in all aspects of its business. This requires ensuring that things are done right the first time and that defects and waste are eliminated from operations.
"Total Quality Control" was the key concept of Armand Feigenbaum 's 1951 book, Quality Control: Principles, Practice, and Administration, a book that was subsequently released in 1961 under the title, Total Quality Control (ISBN 0-07-020353-9). Joseph Juran, Philip B. Crosby, and Kaoru Ishikawa also contributed to the body of knowledge now known as
References: * Abrahamson, E. (1996). "Management fashion." Academy of Management Review. 21(1):254-285. * Chenhall, RH (2003) Management control systems design within its organizational context: findings from contingency-based research and directions for the future, Accounting, Organizations and Society 28, pp. 127-168. * Cerza, Oliver (2004). Quality management in the medical appliances sector. WiKu Editions Paris EURL. ISBN 2-84976-002-1. * Dubois, HFW (2002). "Harmonization of the European vaccination policy and the role TQM and reengineering could play". Quality Management in Health Care 10 (2): 47-57. PMID 11799830. "PDF" * Horine, Julie and Carl Edwin Lindgren * Horine, Julie, Paul Yvarra, Carl Edwin Lindgren. (Winter/1994). A historical and educational view of the theory contained in Deming 's profound knowledge. Education, Volume 115, Number 2: 288-291 & 194. * Horine, Julie and Carl Edwin Lindgren. (1994). Quality management in 21st century education, Educational Review, Volume 100, Number 7:101-105. * Ittner, CD and Larcker, DF (1995) Total quality management and the choice of information and reward systems, Journal of Accounting Research 33(suppl.), pp. 1-34. * "A Few Words about TQM" by John Stark, John Stark Associates, retrieved December 5, 2005.