Total Physical Response

Topics: Second language acquisition, Language education, Education Pages: 2 (592 words) Published: November 1, 2014
The field of second language teaching methods has undergone many shifts and trends over the last few decades. As Harmer (2003) points out, “Methodology is fundamental to the learning of language classrooms where teachers are working”(p.24). According to Richards and Rodgers, methods are teaching systems that are specific about teaching techniques and the roles of learners and teachers. They do not allow interpretation and are acquired by the teachers through training. In the following essay mainly teaching methods will be described. Then some techniques will be explained. Here the focus will be on the main principles of the techniques and their effect on the learner. From some minor methods and approaches only central aspects will be considered. In TPR teaching method, learners are provided with insufficient opportunities for output. Contrary to Swain(1995)’s emphasis on the importance of output in Second Language Acquisition (SLA), TPR focuses on comprehensive input (Krashen, 2009a, p.140) as a mean to achieve oral proficiency. TPR gives priority to listening comprehension that comes first with speaking following later. As a result, students are not required to generate immediate and pushed spoken output, but will spontaneously speak when their comprehension skills are establish and they feel ready. Moreover, spoken output in this method makes little contributions to SLA because it is limited in repeating teacher’s given commands so students’ personal voice and discourse skills have little chance to develop. Grammar is taught inductively so hypotheses about target language grammar will not be checked by leaners in TPR. When it comes to principle 8, the interactive opportunities does not present itself clearly in TPR method because in short, students are required to respond to teacher’s commands nonverbally. However, TPR still somehow illustrates some facets of 8th principle. Firstly, after carrying out a series of repetitive commands given by the teacher,...
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