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Topic 1 Biological Molecules Nucleic Acids Student 2010501 S

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BIOLOGY

TENTH EDITION

Global Edition

Campbell • Reece • Urry • Cain • Wasserman • Minorsky • Jackson

5
Biological Macromolecules and Lipids

Topic 1 Biological Molecules (Part 4)

Lecture Presentation by
Nicole Tunbridge and
Kathleen Fitzpatrick

© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Learning Outcome

a) Describe structure and composition of nucleic acids,
DNA and RNA.
b) Discuss the importance of base pairing and hydrogen
bonding.

©©
2015
Pearson
Education
Ltd
2011
Pearson
Education,

Inc.

Concept 5.5: Nucleic acids store, transmit, and help
express hereditary information
a) The amino acid sequence of a polypeptide is
programmed by a unit of inheritance called
a ________________.
b) Genes consist of ___________, a nucleic acid made
of monomers called ________________.

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The Roles of Nucleic Acids

a) There are two types of nucleic acids
a)_________________________ (DNA)
b)_________________________ (RNA)

b) DNA provides directions for its own _____________.

c) DNA directs synthesis of ____________________
and, through mRNA, controls __________ synthesis.
d) This process is called ________________________.

© 2015 Pearson Education Ltd

Figure 5.23-3

DNA

1 Synthesis of
mRNA

mRNA

NUCLEUS
CYTOPLASM
mRNA
2 Movement of
mRNA into
cytoplasm

Ribosome

3 Synthesis
of protein

Polypeptide
© 2015 Pearson Education Ltd

Amino
acids

a) Each gene along a DNA molecule directs synthesis of
a messenger RNA (mRNA)

b) The mRNA molecule interacts with the cell’s proteinsynthesizing machinery to direct production of a polypeptide
c) The flow of genetic information can be summarized
as ________ → _________ → ______________

© 2015 Pearson Education Ltd

The Components of Nucleic Acids

a) Nucleic acids are polymers called _______________.
b) Each polynucleotide is made of monomers called
_________________________.
c) Each nucleotide consists of a __________________,
a _________________ sugar, and one or more
__________________ groups.
d) The portion of a nucleotide without the phosphate
group is called a ____________________.

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a) Nucleoside = nitrogenous base + sugar
b) There are two families of nitrogenous bases
a)_________________________ (cytosine, thymine, and
uracil) have a single six-membered ring
b)________________________ (adenine and guanine)
have a six-membered ring fused to a five-membered
ring

c) In DNA, the sugar is _________________; in RNA,
the sugar is ___________________.
d) Nucleotide = nucleoside + phosphate group

© 2015 Pearson Education Ltd

Sugar-phosphate backbone
(on blue background)
Why is the sugar called pentose?
5′ end

Figure 5.24a

What’s the diff between nucleoside & nucleotide?

5′C
3′C

Nucleoside
Nitrogenous
base
5′C

1′C
5′C
3′C

Phosphate
group

Sugar
(pentose)

(b) Nucleotide

3′ end
(a) Polynucleotide, or nucleic acid
© 2015 Pearson Education Ltd

3′C

At which sugar C no. is:
i.
phosphate attached?
ii. A base attached?

Figure 5.24b

NITROGENOUS BASES
Pyrimidines

Cytosine
(C)

Thymine
(T, in DNA)
Purines

Uracil
(U, in RNA)

1. What are the elements
present in ALL these
bases?

2. What bases are found
in
a. RNA?

b. DNA?
Adenine (A)

Guanine (G)

(c) Nucleoside components
© 2015 Pearson Education Ltd

Figure 5.24c

Structural Similarity & Difference between
Sugars in DNA & RNA
SUGARS

Deoxyribose
(in DNA)

Ribose (in RNA)

(c) Nucleoside components

© 2015 Pearson Education Ltd

Nucleotide Polymers
a) Nucleotides are linked together to build a polynucleotide. b) Adjacent nucleotides are joined by a
_____________________ linkage, which consists of a
phosphate group that links the sugars of two nucleotides
(________ group on ___ carbon of one nucleotide and
_____________ on ___ carbon on the next).

c) These links create a __________________ of sugarphosphate units with nitrogenous bases as appendages. d) The sequence of bases along a DNA or mRNA polymer is
_______________ for each gene.

© 2015 Pearson Education Ltd

The Structures of DNA and RNA Molecules
a) DNA molecules have two
polynucleotides spiraling
around an imaginary axis,
forming a
______________________.
b) The backbones run in
opposite ___ → ___ directions
from each other, an
arrangement referred to as
_________________.
c) One DNA molecule includes
___________ genes.

© 2015 Pearson Education Ltd

a) Only certain bases in DNA pair up and form hydrogen
bonds: adenine (A) always with thymine (T), and
guanine (G) always with cytosine (C)
adenine (A)

thymine (T)

guanine (G)

cytosine (C)

b) This is called _______________________________.
c) This feature of DNA structure makes it possible
to generate two identical copies of each DNA
molecule in a cell preparing to divide
© 2015 Pearson Education Ltd

a) RNA, in contrast to DNA, is single
stranded.

b) Complementary pairing can also occur
within an RNA molecule allows it to
take on particular ______ shape.
c) tRNA shape result from base pairing
between nucleotides where
complementary stretches of molecule
run antiparallel to each other.

d) While DNA always exists as a
__________________, RNA
molecules are more ___________ in
form.
© 2015 Pearson Education Ltd

Figure 5.UN03

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Figure 5.UN04

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Figure 5.UN05

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Figure 5.UN06

© 2015 Pearson Education Ltd

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