Tony Fernandes

Topics: Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Psychology, Abraham Maslow Pages: 13 (2118 words) Published: April 24, 2014
Contents

Biography ...……………………………………………………………………………..…… 2 Death ……...……………………………………………………………………………….… 4 Humanistic Theories of Self-Actualization ...……………………………………………...… 4 Hierarchy of Needs …………………………………………………………………………... 6 1. Physiological needs ……………………………………………………………………….. 6 2. Safety needs ……………………………………………………………………………….. 7 3. Belongingness and Love needs ……………………………………………………………. 7 4. Esteem needs ……………………………………………………………………………… 7 5. Self-actualization ………………………………………………………………………….. 7 The Advantages and Disadvantages of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs ……………………... 9 Criticism to the Theory …………………………………………………………………….. 10 Recommendations ………………………………………………………………………….. 10 Conclusion ………………………………………………………………………………….. 11 References ………………………………………………………………………………….. 13

Abraham Maslow

Biography
Born and raised in Brooklyn, New York, Abraham Harold Maslow was the oldest of seven children. His parents were the first generation of Jewish immigrants from Russia, who were not intellectually oriented but valued education. It was a tough time for Maslow, as he experienced Anti-Semitism from his teachers and from other children around the neighbourhood. He had various encounters with anti-Semitic gangs who would chase and throw rocks at him. The tension outside of his home was also felt within it; he rarely got along with his mother, and eventually developed a strong revulsion to her. He quoted saying "What I had reacted to was not only her physical appearance, but also her values and world view, her stinginess, her total selfishness, her lack of love for anyone else in the world - even her own husband and children - her narcissism, her Negro prejudice, her exploitation of everyone, her assumption that anyone was wrong who disagreed with her, her lack of friends, her sloppiness and dirtiness..”. He also grew up with few friends other than his cousin, Will and as a result he grew up in libraries and among books. It was in the library that he developed his love for reading and learning. He went to the Boys High School, one of the top high schools in Brooklyn. There, he served as an officer to many academic clubs and became the editor of the Latin Magazine. Besides that, he got his to edit the Principia, that was the school's Physics paper for a year.

After graduating high school, Maslow went to the City College of New York. In 1926, he began taking legal studies classes at night in addition to his undergraduate course load. He hated it and almost immediately dropped out. In 1927, he transferred to Cornell. But due to the unfortunate events, which were his poor grades and the costly education, he left just after the first semester. He re-enrol at City College and upon graduation, he went schooling at the University of Wisconsin to study psychology and graduated. In 1928, he married his first cousin Bertha, whom he had met in Brooklyn years earlier. She was still in high school at that time. Maslow's psychology training at the UW was decidedly on the experimental-behaviourist. At Wisconsin, he pursued a line of research which included investigating primate dominance behaviour and sexuality. Upon the recommendation of Professor Hulsey Cason, Maslow wrote his master's thesis on 'learning, retention and reproduction of verbal material'. Maslow regarded the research as an embarrassing trivial, but he completed his thesis on the summer of 1931 and was awarded his master's degree in Psychology. Then after, he was extremely ashamed of the thesis that he removed it from the psychology library and tore out its catalogue listing. Ironically, Professor Carson admired the research enough to urge Maslow to submit it for publication. Much to Maslow's surprise, his thesis was published as two articles in 1934.

He went on to further his research at Columbia University, continuing similar studies. There, he found another mentor, Alfred Adler who was one of Sigmund Freud's early colleagues. From 1937 to 1951, Maslow was on the...


References: Bob Poston, CST (2009). An Exercise in Personal Exploration: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs.
Francis Heylighen (1992). A Cognitive-Systemic Reconstruction of Maslow’s Theory of Self-Actualization. Behavioural Science, Vol 37.
Michelle Emrich, Referencing, not plagiarism. [Online] Available: http://www.muskingum.edu/~psych/psycweb/history/maslow.htm
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