Germany must accept all responsibility for the starting of the war. This was known as the war guilt clause. German army cut to 100,000 men.
Only volunteers were allowed to join the army.
The German navy could have 6 battleships.
They were not allowed to build any submarines, planes or tanks. The Rhineland, Germany’s main mining and industrial area was demilitarised. Allied troops would be stationed there for 15 years.
All of Germany’s colonies in its overseas empire, for example Africa, were given to the Entente Countries. League of Nations was set up to avoid war in the future. The idea of it was that it would give countries the chance to discuss any problems they may have before going to fight about them. The League had no army and not all countries were members, for example, USA never joined. Some of Germany’s land in Poland and France, for example Alsace-Lorraine was given back to France. The Austrian Empire was broken up into separate independent nations. Austria and Germany were not allowed to unite.
Germany had to pay £6600 million reparations in gold and goods for damage in France and Belgium (where the western front took place. This crippled the economy. From France’s point of view the Treaty was a good deal:
A lot of the £6600 million went to them because of all the homes and factories they lost. They got some of the land that Germany lost, so even with there losses during the war, they got a huge amount of compensation. Britain was affected by the war in that:
Because some overseas empires were taken away from Germany, Germany could now concentrate just on dominating Britain. Britain didn’t want the Treaty to be unfair on Germany; they wanted it to be a fair treaty, which would give everyone a reasonable deal. The U.S.A. had suffered much less that Europe and France during the war: Their late entry to it and their distance away from Germany. They still wanted a fair deal all round to prevent another war from breaking out to resume world peace. They also wanted France and other surrounding countries of Germany to feel safe and independent now. Germany got the worst deal:
All the other world leaders felt that the war was their fault. They had to accept full blame for starting the whole war. This would be especially bad from Germany’s point of view, because now they have lost the war, come of the worst in the rest of the Treaty, and now also have to give in to admitting that they solely were to blame for starting the war. Germany weren’t actually the ones who started the war, if it weren’t for Archduke Franz Ferdinand’s death in Austria, then the first argument would never have even broken out in the first place. Germany also could not even pay off all the reparations that they owed other countries, and so the U.S.A. had to lend Germany huge amounts of the money.
The Treaty of Versailles was not fair. All the countries except for Germany found it fair at the time because they believed that the war was all Germany’s fault and so it seemed the right thing to do to have Germany having the worst deal. The Treaty would not seem fair from Germany’s point of view because of how it ended for them. But also Germany couldn’t even have a say in the decisions, they simply had to sign the agreement at the end. Also it was a majority decision so even if they had been able to have a say in it then they would have most probably still come out just as bad anyway. They also felt vulnerable to a foreign attack as they had such a small army and navy. Many Germans had thought their government had betrayed them. In conclusion the Treaty was not fair, at the time no one realised that except Germany, but now it is accepted that it was not fair. Germany didn’t have to live with the unfairness for long though because when Hitler came along Germany started going against the rules agreed in the Treaty.