to what extent can development be sustainable
Curitiba in southern Brazil has the 5th biggest economy of cities in Brazil. The city acts as one of Brazil’s financial hubs. Nevertheless Curitiba also has a strong manufacturing pedigree with the South American headquarters of Volvo trucks located here. As a consequence the city’s population swells to over 4 million during week days. In order to cope with such large numbers of people the local government had to find a solution to the congestion throughout the city. After much consultation it was decided that the city would be pedestrianised. Furthermore a deal was secured with the local Volvo factory to supply a new form of bi-articulated bus. These buses travel along designated routes carrying over 10000 passengers per day each. The Rapid Bus Network as it is known has been calculated to be 500 times cheaper than a subway system. Unlike a subway system the network can increase the number of buses in response to varying demand. The Curitiba RBN operates cost effectively, making it extremely economically sustainable.
London is also a financial hub. Unlike Curitiba it has adopted an underground train system. The system is the oldest in the world, 150 years old. This has caused many issues that other transport systems would not experience. The old tunnels need constant repair and the operational costs of the old stations far exceed that of modern subway systems. Nevertheless authorities have enclosed strategies that have made the underground system economically and financially sustainable. Over 80% of the operational costs are covered by ticket fares. With a new £10 billion improvement plan over the next 10 years, the figure is set to rise.
One of the main issues faced by any urban environment is the