To Determine Prevallence of Meloidogne Species ( Root-Knot Nematode) on Beans in Muno Location in Uasin- Gishu County

Topics: Nematode, Root, Root-knot nematode Pages: 19 (5918 words) Published: June 11, 2013
TO DETERMINE PREVALLENCE OF Meloidogne species ( ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE) ON BEANS IN MUNO LOCATION IN UASIN- GISHU COUNTY PRESENTED BY DOMINIC MAGUTaa

TABLE OF CONTENT
1.1 DECLARATION
1.2 DEDICATION
1.3 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
ABSTRACT……………………………………………………………………………… INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………………….. LITERATURE REVIEW……………………………………………………………… METHODOLOGY……………………………………………………………………….. DISCUSSION OF RESULTS…………………………………………………………. CONCLUSSION ………………………………………………………………………… RECOMMENDATION…………………………………………………………………. REFFERENCE ……………………………………………………………………………

Abstract
The study was carried out in Muno location , Uasingishu district in rift valley province of Kenya between the month of January and September 2012 . the main objective of the study was to establish the prevalence of root – knot nematode on beans in the area . six sub-location were sampled randomly and the samples were taken and studied in the laboratory using several analytical methods such as baermans funnel method Root-knot nematodes have severe effects in the production of beans where they cause considerable annual lose to farmers i .the type of root-knot that severely affects beans is the meloidogyne spp besides other nematodes such as heterodora spp, paratylenchus spp , ditylenchus spp which are also realized in the location . The root- knot nematodes affects all leguminous crops . crops affected show the following symptoms ,Root knots or root galls , Root lesions ,Excessive root branching , Injured root tips and Root rot . These symptoms are usually accompanied by the malformation , blistering of the above parts of the plant , twisting or distortion of leaves and stems and abnormal development of the floral parts Protection of beans from attack from nematodes and other organisms through cultural and chemical means is one of the most promising ways of increasing bean production . but the future nemotological progress will depend upon increased and more effective research , teaching and extension in this relatively new and important area of biology

CHAPTER ONE
1,0 INTRODUCTION
Nematodes are one of the most important groups of invertabrates and are found either as free living or parasites in terrestrial or aquatic habitats both marine and fresh water , from the actic , antactic , sea bottoms to thermal springs . All soils that support plant lives contain nemetodes living in water films that sorounds the soil particles . most nematodes feed on microscopic plants , animals and microorganisms but a few such as hookworms , pin worms and ascaris lumbricoids are parasites of animals and some plants Movement is seperitine and there are no body appendages , reproduction is by laying egges , males may or may not be present and adults of some species are hermaphrodites . all species known have for larval stages and adult stages separated by moults . in some species , adult females become swollen and sedentary . Plant parasitic nematodes are distinguished by their sizes about 1 mm in average length and have mouthparts that are modified to form a hollow siglet which is inserted into plant cells . the food intake of nematodes is by a section provided by muscular aesophogus All plant nematodes are placed in the two orders ie

(i) tylenchida
(ii) doryglaemida
in nature , all nematodes ingest living food and plant feeders are considered obligate parasites in that they do not grow or reproduce in the absence of living host plant . feeding of the ectoparasites is restricted to the root surface whereas endoparasites move to the inside of the plant tissues plant injury is of three general types and is restricted to feeding habitats . migratory endoparsites destroys tissues as they feed producing necrotic lesions in the root cortex . other migratory endoparasites invade the...


References: Barker, K.R., G.A. Pederson and G.L. Windham. 1998. Plant and Nematode Interactions. ASA, CSSA, SSA Publishers, Madison, WI.
France, R.A. and G.S. Abawi. 1993. Interaction between Meloidogyne incognita and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli on selected bean genotypes. Journal of Nematology 26:467-474.
Jepson, S.B. 1987. Identification of Root-Knot Nematodes (Meloidogyne Species). CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
Karssen, G. 2002. The Plant-Parasitic Nematode Genus Meloidogyne Goeldi, 1892 (Tylenchida) in Europe. Brill Academic Publishers, Boston, MA.
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