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English Language Arts
Grade
To Kill a Mocking Bird Unit

A

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Resource 1.3 Key
Marilyn Monroe – classic film star/beauty icon

Model T – classic car

Coca-Cola – classic American beverage

Muhammad Ali – classic boxer (may also think of classic fights) WWII photo – classic image of V-J Day

Vans – classic sneaker

The Fonz (Henry Winkler from Happy Days) – classic TV character from classic show; also a classic “rebel” character Cheeseburger & fries – classic American meal

Beach cruiser – classic form of transportation/leisure

Box of chocolate/flowers – classic Valentine’s Day gift

Buddy Holly style glasses – classic glasses look/frames

Soccer – classic American (and other countries) sport

Resource 1.8

Gallery Walk: Classic Crimes and Trials
Classic Trial

Prediction
Innocent or
Guilty?

Sample

Classic Trial A

Innocent

Evidence from text to support your prediction
The defendant’s alibi said she was at work instead of at the crime scene. Actual Outcome
Innocent or Guilty?

Guilty

The People vs.
Zamora

I don’t think it was fair because it seems unlikely she was lying about her alibi, but she was convicted anyway. It seems like society was trying to make a point because she was a celebrity.

OJ was a celebrity, which may have inclined people to his favor. Because of a history of race riots and prejudice
(e.g., Rodney
King), people were biased against the
LA police department. Innocent

Society expected women to be gentle and incapable of such a horrible act.

Guilty

The decision to forbid the men from changing was based on a

State of
Massachusetts vs.
Elizabeth Borden
Classic Trial C

How did society influence or shape the outcome? Guilty

State of California vs. O.J. Simpson

Classic Trials B

Do you think the verdict was fair?
Why or why not?

Resource 1.8

prejudice against zoot suits as something obviously worn by
“hoodlums.” There was also a lot of prejudice against
Mexicans and concern over a juvenile delinquency problem. Classic Trial D

Guilty

People trusted the authority of the
Catholic church and were suspicious of those who went against it. The church itself was suspicious of anything that challenged its authority and theology. Innocent

Similar to the issues in the People v.
Zamora, many critics believed that there was undue prejudice against
African-American
teens in “hoodies,” who were assumed

The People v.
Galileo

Classic Trial E
The State of Florida vs. George
Zimmerman

Resource 1.8 to be troublemakers, key in this case since
Zimmerman
followed the teen as part of a
Neighborhood
Watch.

Resource 2.1

Think-Write-Pair-Share: Generational Differences
Think of a time where you and your parents (or a teacher/other adult) misunderstood each other or came into conflict because you were from different generations. How did your parents’ world and upbringing affect their point of view?
How did your world affect your point of view?
Answers will vary, as this is based on student experience.
The key point, however, is for students to see the ways in which the society a person grows up in shapes his/her beliefs and ways of doing things.
An example might be a grandparent who speaks about other races using terms and stereotypes that horrify us today. To many of our grandparents, this is not inappropriate – these are terms that were commonplace when they were growing up, and the stereotypes are reflective of those held and accepted in society at that time. Today, however, we work to address many injustices in our society and emphasize political correctness, so we find these terms and stereotypes horribly offensive. Many of us today grew up in a world where different cultures are prized, so it is unusual for us to even make a big deal out of cultural differences.

Pair-Share
1. Student A shares his/her story with Student B.
2. Student B asks at least two clarifying questions about Student A’s story.
a. Optional Sentence Frames:
i. How did you feel when . . .? ii. Why did you . . .? iii. Why do you think the other person . . .?
3. Then Student B shares his/her story with Student A, and Student A asks clarifying questions of Student B.

Life in the 1930s Adjective
An adjective I would use to describe life in the 1930s would be ________________________________ because _______
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________.
Suggestions of adjectives are provided in the lesson plan.

Resource 2.8

Era Envelope: Putting To Kill a Mockingbird in Context
Directions: As you review each handout in your group’s envelope, answer the questions below.
Handout
1

Text-Dependent Questions
How would you characterize, or describe, Harper Lee?
Harper Lee is a tomboy. She is also resilient, succeeding despite a difficult childhood. She is very studious, loving to read and write and working hard in school. She is a loner and an individualist, preferring to spend time alone than with others.
Provide three examples from the text to support your response.
“She grew up as a tomboy in a small town”
“Lee often stepped up to serve as Truman’s protector”
“her mother suffered from mental illness, rarely leaving the house”
“member of the literary honor society”
“known for being a loner and an individualist”
“writing . . . was her true calling”
“She couldn’t have cared less about fashion, makeup, or dating.”

2

What seems to be the purpose of Jim Crow laws?
The purpose seems to be to enforce segregation between blacks and whites, making it illegal for them to interact in any way.
Which of the sample laws provided stands out to you the most? Why?
Answers will vary.

3

Based on the picture and quotations provided, how would you describe the “ideal” Southern girl?
The ideal Southern girl wears dresses and pays close attention to current fashion trends. She is goodnatured, gentle, submissive, quite, pure, and proper. She is focused on pleasing others and is a “proper lady.” How is the ideal Southern woman similar to expectations for girls and women today?
Answers will vary, but might include the idea that women are still expected to be gentle, kind, submissive, and pure, though often less so than in the excerpt. Women are still expected to be interested in fashion, though there are no longer expectations for what specific styles are acceptable.
How is the ideal Southern woman different from expectations for girls and women today?
Answers will vary, but might include the idea that there is much less emphasis on specific types of clothes
(e.g., women wear pants often and are not expected to only wear skirts). There is much less emphasis on manners and quietness – many successful movies feature women as superheroes (e.g., Fantastic Four) or contain crass humor (e.g., Bridesmaids). Even where there are expectations (see above), they are less rigid and much more subtle.

4

What is lynching?
Lynching is when a mob of people takes the law into their own hands, killing or injuring someone accused of wrongdoing.
What is the “strange fruit” described in the poem? How do you know?
The “strange fruit” is the bodies of black people who have been hanged in a tree. Phrases that indicate this include: “blood on the leaves and blood at the root,” “Black bodies swinging in the southern breeze,” “The

Resource 2.8 bulging eyes and the twisted mouth,” “the sudden smell of burning flesh.”
What effect does the description of the “strange fruit” in the poem have on you? Why?
Answers will vary.

5

What information presented in the text explains why the Great Depression was such a worldwide catastrophe? The country’s gross national product was nearly cut in half. 16 million Americans were unemployed, and it lasted for 10 years. It also ruined European economies that were still recovering from World War I.
What do the photographs suggest about what life was like for Americans during the Great Depression?
They suggest life was stressful, desperate, and exhausting. People worked hard and worried a lot.
What do the text and photographs suggest about the emotions Americans faced each day during the Great
Depression?
Based on the information and photographs provided, Americans faced fear, worry, anxiety, panic, discouragement, and hopelessness.

6

What inferences can you make about life in the 1930s based on these photographs?
Children’s lives were simpler – they spent time playing outside. Clothing was more formal, as everyone is wearing dresses or slacks. Children seem more independent and able to entertain themselves; however, life seems centered on the community. Life is clearly segregated – you don’t see pictures of blacks and whites together – and labor for the black community was hard. Everyone looks dirty.
Which photograph do you find most interesting? Why?
Answers will vary.

Resource 2.9

Scottsboro Viewing Guide
Directions: As you watch the clips from Scottsboro: An American Experience, answer the questions below.
Excerpt
1

Text-Dependent Questions
What is the crime that has been committed?
Ruby Bates and Victoria Price accuse nine black men of raping them on a train.
Do you think the nine boys are guilty? Why or why not?
Answers will vary, though students should lean more toward no. There are conflicting accounts of what happened, one boy had syphilis so bad he couldn’t walk, another was blind, and some of the nine had never met before. The trouble started over a fight with white men, so it seemed confusing when the girls started making accusations.

Transcript

What did the girls have to gain by accusing the black men of rape?
They were so poor they lived in the black section of town and sometimes traded sex (with black and white men) for money. Accusing the boys of rape allowed them to be pure white women for a moment.
What disadvantages were the nine boys facing?
Extreme racism in the South (particularly Alabama) meant that the white men were prepared to lynch them and the white women’s word carried more power. The boys were also poor, so they had no means of defending themselves or appearing “respectable” before a white court.
How did the time period contribute to the trouble that arose?
Alabama had been struck especially hard by the Depression, and massive unemployment and poverty had led to increasing conflict between the races.

2

How did the actions of society shape the individuals involved in the Scottsboro trial?
The judge who overturned the verdict was defeated for reelection and never served as a judge again.
Leibowitz (the defense lawyer) set in motion the integration of Southern juries. He was also appointed to the bench, but his new perspective (still part of society) made him a passionate advocate for capital punishment. Victoria Price disappeared, but she later sued NBC for making her look like a prostitute and a liar in a documentary. Most of the boys were destroyed by the case: Haywood Patterson killed a man in a bar fight and died in prison; Andy Wright was again falsely accused of raping a white woman: Roy Wright shot and killed himself and his wife. Only Clarence Norris made a life for himself in the North; he eventually received a pardon and spoke out about the truth.

After discussing your responses to the film clips, take five minutes to reflect on what you learned today and respond to the following prompt.
If you grew up in a world similar to Harper Lee’s, why might you be motivated to write a novel about your experience?
What would you say?
Answers will vary.

Resource 3.1

Checking for Understanding Questions: Chapter 1
Directions: As you read each chapter of the novel, answer the questions below.
Chapter
1

Text-Dependent Questions
Describe the setting of the novel.
Maycomb, Alabama is a Southern town that Scout describes as a “tired old town.” It is disheveled – the ground turns to red slop when it rains, there is grass on the sidewalks, and the courthouse sags. It is hot, and both people and time move slowly. There is nowhere to go, nothing to buy, no money, and nothing to see. The novel takes place during the Great Depression.
Why does the Radley Place fascinate Scout, Dill and Jem?
The town is full of rumors about the Radley family, particularly Boo, a “malevolent phantom” who sneaks out at night to wreak havoc on the neighborhood. Boo never comes out and the family doesn’t interact with the townspeople, so there is a lot of mystery about them. The house is creepy and dark, which adds to the mystery and the children’s fascination.

Resource 3.3

Who’s Who in To Kill a Mockingbird?
Directions: The first chapter of the novel is its exposition, where we meet the important characters and learn the setting. As you read the first chapter, use the chart to record important details about each of the important people and places. You will then be able to refer to your notes as you continue reading the novel.
Character or
Place

Scout Finch
(Narrator)

Jem Finch

Atticus Finch

My Notes
Jean Louise Finch
Mother died when she was two
Story starts when she was almost 6
Can and likes to read
Creative, imaginative, and adventurous
Breaks his arm at the end of the novel (when he is 13)
Loves football
Scout’s older brother (4 years older)
Emotional – sometimes misses his mother
Creative and imaginative
Tries to be brave
Leader
Lawyer who makes a “reasonable income”
Scout and Jem’s father
Helped pay for his brother (Uncle Jack) to go to medical school
Related by blood or marriage to everyone in town
Treats his children with “courteous detachment”
Encourages his children to mind their own business

Maycomb,
Alabama

Southern old town
Tired old town
Disheveled – red slop when it rains, grass on sidewalks, sagging courthouse
Hot
People and time move slowly
Nowhere to go, nothing to buy, no money (Great Depression), nothing to see

Calpurnia

African-American cook for the Finch family
All angles and bones
Nearsighted
Hand as wide as a bed slat and twice as hard
Family disciplinarian
Substitute mother
Rarely comments on the ways of white people

Dill (Charles
Baker Harris)

Miss Rachel Haverford’s nephew (Miss Rachel lives next door to the Finches)
Little for his age
Can and likes to read
Came from Meridian, Mississippi for the summer
May not have a father
Especially fascinated by the Radley Place
Won a Beautiful Child contest
Wears blue linen shorts and has snow white hair like duck fluff
Imaginative and a good storyteller

Resource 3.3
Character or
Place

Boo Radley
(Arthur)

The
Cunninghams

Mr. Radley

Miss
Stephanie
Crawford

My Notes
Malevolent phantom
Peeps in windows at night
Freezes azaleas by breathing on them
Commits stealthy small crimes at night
Everyone (mostly children) afraid of him (but everyone talks about him)
Locked up by his father after getting in trouble as a teenager
Stabs his father in the leg when he is 33 years old
Enormous tribe of troublemakers (they are part of the “gang” that Boo Radley gets in trouble with)
Keeps to himself
Religious but worships at home
No job
Strict – punishes Boo himself after he gets into trouble
Thin, colorless eyes, sharp cheekbones
Took the Word of God as his only law
Neighborhood scold/gossip

Resource 3.4

Say-Mean-Matter: Diction and Setting
A writer’s diction, or choice of words, helps the reader to travel to the specific place and time that makes up the novel’s setting. It also creates the tone and mood of the story. Read and analyze each of the following quotations from the first chapter of To Kill a Mockingbird to help you get a better understanding of Harper Lee’s diction and setting. For the last row of the chart, use your book to find another quotation that shows how Harper Lee uses language to create her setting, tone, or mood.

Say

Mean

Matter

Write your quotation, or the actual words of the author from the text.

Paraphrase the text. What is the meaning of the quotation?

What effect do the words have on you, the reader? What do they tell you about the setting, mood, or tone of the novel?

Years later, we were able to think back and talk about what happened that caused Jem’s injury.

The language is formal and the narrator is telling us that her family didn’t talk about the accident when it happened. It sounds serious. The narrator is also telling us about something that happened in the past. “When enough years had gone by to enable us to look back on them, we sometimes discussed the events leading to his accident.”

“Being Southerners, it was a source of shame to some members of the family that we had no recorded ancestors on either side of the Battle of Hastings.”

As people from the South, some of our family members were ashamed that none of our ancestors fought in the
Battle of Hastings.

They tell us the novel is in the South.
Family and Civil War heritage are important to Southerners.

“Maycomb was an old town, but it was a tired old town when I first knew it. In rainy weather the streets turned to red slop; grass grew on the sidewalks, the courthouse sagged in the square.”

Maycomb was old and run down when I was little. The streets got muddy in the rain, grass grew on the sidewalks, and the courthouse was old.

The town is small and run down – not a big city. It is not well kept up, perhaps because of the Great
Depression.

“People moved slowly then. They ambled across the square, shuffled in and out of the stores around it, took their time about everything. A day was twenty-four hours long but seemed longer.”

At the time of the story, people moved slowly across the town square and in/out of stores. People always took their time, and time seemed to move slowly. Again, this is a small town, not a big city. People aren’t in a rush to get places, and there is not a lot to do.

Resource 3.6

Considering Multiple Perspectives
Consider each of the following scenarios from three different perspectives. How would each person feel or think about the situation? Would they all view it the same way?
Scenario
Jimmy sleeps through his alarm and wakes up five minutes before he has to leave. He needs to get ready, but his sister is using the bathroom and won’t get out. Jimmy ends up being late to first period and gets a detention from his teacher.

Jimmy
Jimmy would probably feel frazzled.
He would think it was unfair of his sister to keep him out of the bathroom and unfair that he got in trouble because it was his sister’s fault he was late.

Jimmy’s Sister
She would feel that she had every right to use the bathroom because she got there first and Jimmy should have woken up earlier.

Alice

Jimmy’s Teacher
The teacher wouldn’t care who was in the bathroom or why Jimmy was late; from the teacher’s perspective, Jimmy was late, so he deserves a consequence. Scenario

Mrs. Smith

Mrs. Smith gets in a car accident on the way to school. She makes it to school on time, but as she is setting her things down, she spills coffee all over her desk. Alice comes into class and asks for a grade report, and Mrs.
Smith snaps at her, saying, “Can’t you tell this isn’t a good time?” Alice rolls her eyes and giggles about Mrs.
Smith’s outfit with her friend when she gets back to her desk.

Mrs. Smith would feel frazzled and frustrated. She would think that Alice should have seen her frustration and waited until a calmer moment to ask for a grade report.

Scenario

Mr. Abbott

Students Who Did Their Homework

Students Who Didn’t Do Their
Homework

Fifteen students in Mr. Abbott’s class don’t do their homework. Mr. Abbott gets angry and decides to make the entire class stay in at lunch to get caught up.

Mr. Abbott would feel angry that so many students didn’t do their work.
He would probably justify keeping the other students in with the idea that they will learn a lesson and could use the time to do work anyway.

They would feel angry because it was unfair for them to be punished when they did their work.

Some might feel embarrassed for getting others in trouble (someone might even speak up in their defense); some might be angry they’ve been punished; others might be sorry and acknowledge that they deserved it.

Alice would be offended that Mrs.
Smith got mad at her and think she was being unreasonably rude when
Alice just had a simple question.

Another Student in Alice’s Class
Many students might not have cared or noticed the situation; depending on how they felt about Alice and/or
Mrs. Smith, they would have either laughed or felt bad for Mrs. Smith. A particularly nice student might have offered to go get paper towels.

Resource 3.7

Checking for Understanding Questions: Chapters 2-8
Directions: As you read each chapter of the novel, answer the questions below.
Chapter
2

Text-Dependent Questions
Why does Scout end up in trouble on her first day of school?
She embarrasses Miss Caroline by trying to explain that Walter Cunningham forgot his lunch because his family is poor, but that the Cunninghams don’t take charity.

3

What does Scout say to Walter Cunningham that gets her into trouble?
She asks what in the “sam hill” he is doing when he pours syrup all over his lunch. Calpurnia takes her into the kitchen and lectures her about treating guests with courtesy.
Why are the Ewells allowed special privileges?
The Ewells are such nasty people that the other townspeople want to avoid a run-in with them. In addition, the townspeople know Bob Ewell is a drunk, so they don’t want to keep his children from getting food, which is why they allow Bob to go hunting out of season.
What compromise does Atticus make with Scout?
He agrees to continue reading with her against Miss Caroline’s wishes if she agrees to continue going to school. 4

What does Scout share at the end of the chapter?
When she rolled into the Radley yard in the tire, she could hear someone laughing inside the house.
Who was inside the house?
Boo Radley was inside the house. (The other Radleys may have been there, too, but based on what we know about them, they would be more likely to chase the children out of their yard than laugh.)

5

What reasons does Atticus give when he tells the children to leave Boo alone and stop playing the Boo
Radley game?
He tells them the Radleys have a right to privacy, that trying to poke a note through the Radleys’ window is not a civil way to communicate with others, that they need to wait for an invitation, and that it is hurtful to make fun of people in front of the neighborhood. He reminds them that if he did any of these things to them, they wouldn’t like it.

6

What explanation does Jem give for his missing pants?
He tells Atticus he lost them in a game of strip poker (for matches, not money).

7

What does Jem confess to Scout?
When he went back to the Radley Place to get his pants, they were neatly folded and waiting for him on the fence. Someone had mended the tear, but crudely, as if they were unskilled at sewing.
List the items found in the tree knothole.
The children find two pieces of gum, two Indian-head pennies (in a box wrapped with gum wrappers), a ball of twine, two dolls (a boy and a girl) carved out of soap, a spelling bee medal, and a broken pocket watch on a chain with a knife attached.
Why does Mr. Radley fill the hole with cement?
He says that he has filled the hole because the tree is dying (though Atticus later tells Jem there is nothing wrong with the tree). Careful readers will pick up on Jem’s suspicion that Boo Radley has been leaving the

Resource 3.7 gifts and that Mr. Radley fills the hole to cut off Boo’s communication with the children.
8

How does the weather change?
It snows for the first time in over 50 years.
How do Jem and Scout spend the day?
They spend the day making a snowman that looks like Mr. Avery; when Atticus finds out, he makes them disguise it, so they add Miss Maudie’s sun hat and hedge-clippers, creating what Miss Maudie calls a
“morphodite” (or hermaphrodite) snowman.
What happens to Mr. Avery?
He gets stuck and then falls off the roof of Miss Maudie’s house while trying to help save furniture from her house when it catches on fire.
What does Jem tell Atticus?
Jem tells Atticus all of the children’s secrets about Boo Radley – the gifts they have found in the knothole and the truth about the pants he lost. After the incident with the cement, he’s afraid that Boo will get in trouble for coming out of the house to give Scout a blanket.
Who put the blanket on Scout? How do you know?
Boo Radley put the blanket on Scout. Everyone else was out at the fire, and Scout was standing in front of the Radley Place. It is unlikely that Nathan Radley would have extended this kindness.

Resource 3.9

You Never Really Understand a Person Until . . .
Point of view is the vantage point from which a narrator tells a story. At the end of Chapter 3, Scout receives a valuable piece of advice from her father. What is it? Write the quotation in the space below.
Quotation: “You never really understand a person until you consider things from his point of view – until you climb into his skin and walk around in it.”
What does the quote mean? Put it in your own words on the line below.
Paraphrase: You can’t fully know a person without considering things from their point of view and experiencing life the way they do.
Review the following events from Scout’s first day of school. If she had followed Atticus’s advice, how would her day have been different? Be prepared to share your responses with your class.
Event

Scout’s Point of View

How would her day have been different with the new advice?

Jem walks Scout to school

“I was to stick with the first grade and he would stick to the fifth. In short, I was to leave him alone.”

She would not have started off the day hurt that Jem didn’t want to be seen with her; she would understand that he had his own friends to spend time with.

Miss Caroline finds out Scout can read

“Miss Caroline apparently thought I was lying. ‘Let’s not let our imaginations run away with us, dear,’ she said. ‘Now you tell your father not to teach you anymore.’” She would have been less angry and understood that Miss Caroline was flustered as a new teacher by a student who already knew how to read. Scout explains to Miss
Caroline about the
Cunninghams

“You’re shamin’ him, Miss Caroline.
Walter hasn’t got a quarter at home to bring you, and you can’t use any stovewood.” She would have realized Miss
Caroline was new and didn’t understand the situation. She would likely have phrased her explanation more politely (or explained in private). Walter eats lunch at the
Finches house

“Walter poured syrup on his vegetables and meat with a generous hand. He would probably have poured it into his milk glass had I not asked what the sam hill he was doing.”

She would have realized it would embarrass Walter to draw attention to his behavior, which means she would have avoided getting in trouble with Calpurnia.

Calpurnia calls Scout into the kitchen “’He ain’t company, Cal, he’s just a
Cunningham—‘ . . . Calpurnia sent me through the swinging door to the dining room with a stinging smack.”

She would have realized she was being rude and hurting Walter’s feelings by suggesting he was “just” a Cunningham, not good enough to be her company.

Scout tries to get Atticus to let her stay home from school.

“Burris Ewell, remember? He just goes to school the first day. The truant lady reckons she’s carried out the law when she gets his name on the roll.”

She would have realized that the
Ewells have a difficult life, much different from her own.

Resource 3.11

Practice Explaining Symbols
Directions: Remember that a symbol is an object with both a literal and figurative meaning; that is, it represents both itself and something else. Using the sentence frame provided, explain both the literal and figurative meaning of each symbol provided below.

EXAMPLE OF SYMBOL

EXPLANATION OF THE SYMBOL
Literally, this is an image of a circle with a triangle inside it; but figuratively, it is associated with playing a video.

Literally, this is an image of a woman in a dress and a man; but figuratively, it is associated with, men’s and women’s restrooms.

Literally, this is an image of a hand holding up two fingers; but figuratively, it is associated with, peace, victory, or
“Fight On” (for USC fans).

Literally, this is an image of an apple with a bite taken out of it;

but figuratively, it is associated with, Apple computers and other products.

Literally, this is an image of a mermaid in a green circle; but figuratively, it is associated with, Starbucks coffee.

Resource 3.11

Literally, this is an image of an owl; but figuratively, it is associated with, wisdom (or the goddess Athena for those who remember Greek mythology). Literally, this is an image of the Statue of Liberty (or a green statue of a woman holding a torch and a book, for those who want to be super literal);

but figuratively, it is associated with, freedom, liberty, immigration, the United States, opportunity.

Literally, this is an image of a pink ribbon; but figuratively, it is associated with, breast cancer awareness. Literally, this is an image of the colors black and white
(the crayons don’t mean anything – it’s just hard to depict pure color!);

but figuratively, it is associated with, white: good, light, innocence, purity; black: bad, ignorance, evil, death.
Literally, this is an image of a beautiful woman and an ugly beast;

but figuratively, it is associated with, each character’s inner personality – Belle is a kind woman, and the prince is turned into a beast because he refuses to show kindness to an old woman.

Literally, this is an image of hands holding out an apple; but figuratively, it is associated with, temptation, sin
(Garden of Eden, Adam, Eve), possibly also with danger
(Snow White) and seduction (Twilight).

Resource 3.12

Checking for Understanding Questions: Chapters 9-10
Directions: As you read each chapter of the novel, answer the questions below.
Chapter
9

Text-Dependent Questions
What does Atticus tell Scout about his reasons for defending Tom?
He tells her that if he didn’t represent Tom (in other words, if he didn’t do what he believed was right), he couldn’t hold his head up in town, he couldn’t represent the county in the legislature, and he couldn’t tell her and Jem not to do something. He would have lost all moral authority.
Who was Cousin Ike Finch?
He was a relative of Jem and Scout’s (unclear whose cousin he was), and he was Maycomb’s sole surviving
Confederate veteran. Every Christmas, Jem and Scout had to kiss him and listen to him rehash the Civil War with Atticus.
Describe what happens at Finch’s Landing.
Francis (Jem and Scout’s cousin) calls Dill a stray dog and Atticus a nigger-lover who is ruining the family, so
Scout beats him up. She gets in trouble for cursing (she calls him a whore-lady while beating him up) but
Uncle Jack forgives her when he finds out she was defending Atticus. He keeps it a secret, however, because Scout had promised Atticus she wouldn’t fight anyone who insulted him and she doesn't want to let him down.
What do Jem and Scout get for Christmas?
They get air rifles for Christmas.

10

Why does Scout think Atticus is feeble?
Scout thinks Atticus is feeble because he is nearly 50 and did things she and Jem thought were boring
(working in an office and reading) rather than the exciting things their classmates’ fathers did (playing football, working in a drug store, driving a dump truck, working as a sheriff/farmer/garage worker, hunting, playing poker, fishing, drinking, smoking). He also wore glasses and brought negative attention to her and
Jem by defending Tom Robinson.
Who does Scout try to shoot?
She tries to shoot Miss Maudie in the rear.
Why is it a sin to kill a mockingbird?
It is a sin to kill a mockingbird because they are innocent – they don’t do anything to bother people; instead, they just make music for people to enjoy.

Resource 3.14

Analyzing Symbols in To Kill a Mockingbird
Directions: For each of the following symbols, provide an illustration, two quotations (including page numbers), and an explanation of who or what the symbol represents.
Symbol

Illustration

Two Quotations

Who or What Does the Symbol Represent?

(including page numbers)


“If she found a blade of nut grass in her yard it was like the Second Battle of the Marne: she swooped down upon it with a tin tub and subjected it to blasts from beneath with a poisonous substance she said was so powerful it’d kill us all if we didn’t stand out of the way” (42).



“Why can’t you just pull it up?” . . . “Why, one sprig of nut grass can ruin a whole yard. Look here.
When it comes fall this dries up and the wind blows it all over Maycomb
County” (42).



“Shoot all the bluejays you want, if you can hit ‘em, but remember it’s a sin to kill a mockingbird” (90).



“Mockingbirds don’t do one thing but make music for us to enjoy . . . but sing their hearts out for us.
That’s why it’s a sin to kill a mockingbird” (90).

Miss Maudie’s
Nut Grass
(Chapter 5)

The
Mockingbird
(Chapter 10)

Miss Maudie’s nutgrass is symbolic of her belief that racism must be eliminated by the roots. When it comes to her garden, Miss
Maudie is a perfectionist. Part of the beauty of her plants comes with the loving attention that she shows them. She knows that the nutgrass cannot be eradicated simply by “pulling them up”; like the racism rampant in Maycomb, it must be destroyed at its origins. Additionally, she points out that one sprig of nutgrass can ruin a whole yard, demonstrating the danger prejudice poses to society, as it grows and spreads if not dealt with appropriately.

The title of To Kill a Mockingbird has very little literal connection to the plot, but it carries a great deal of symbolic weight in the book. In this story of innocents destroyed by evil, the
“mockingbird” comes to represent the idea of innocence. Thus, to kill a mockingbird is to destroy innocence. Throughout the book, a number of characters (Jem, Tom Robinson, Dill,
Boo Radley, Mr. Raymond) can be identified as mockingbirds – innocents who have been injured or destroyed through contact with evil.
This connection between the novel’s title and its main theme is made explicit several times in the novel: after Tom Robinson is shot, Mr.
Underwood compares his death to “the senseless slaughter of songbirds,” and at the end of the book Scout thinks that hurting Boo
Radley would be like “shootin’ a mockingbird.”
That Scout and Jem’s last name is Finch
(another type of small bird) indicates that they are particularly vulnerable in the racist world of Maycomb, which often treats the fragile innocence of childhood harshly.

Symbol

Illustration

Two Quotations

Resource 3.14
Who or What Does the Symbol Represent?

(including page numbers)

Tim Johnson, the Mad Dog
(Chapter 10)



“. . . I hope and pray I can get Jem and Scout through it without bitterness, and most of all, without catching Maycomb’s usual disease. Why reasonable people go stark raving mad when anything involving a Negro comes up, is something I don’t pretend to understand”
(88).



“Jem gulped like a goldfish, hunched his shoulders and twitched his torso. ‘He’s goin’ like that, only not like he wants to” (93).

It may seem odd to give an animal the last name of the family it belongs to, but it’s apparently common practice in Maycomb –
Judge Taylor’s pooch gets the same treatment.
But more interestingly, it allows the dog’s name to sound suspiciously like that of another character. Tim Johnson . . . Tom Robison?
Coincidence? Perhaps. But Scout’s memory of her father shooting the dog does pop up more than once in situations involving Tom and doesn’t get mentioned otherwise.
For example, after Scout turns away the lynch mob, her memory of Atticus in front of the jail merges with her memory of him shooting the dog: “I was very tired, and was drifting into sleep when the memory of Atticus calmly folding his newspaper and pushing back his hat became Atticus standing in the middle of an empty waiting street, pushing up his glasses.
The full meaning of the night’s events hit me and I began crying.”
But why does Scout associate the two images?
Perhaps they’re both examples of Atticus doing tough things he doesn’t want to do. Or of
Atticus facing off with a mindless threat. When
Atticus refers to racism as Maycomb’s “usual disease,” where people “go stark raving mad,” it makes sense that just as Atticus is the one to shoot the mad dog, so he is also the one willing to take on the rampant racism in Maycomb.

Resource 3.15

Creating Your Own Symbol
On the lines below, write down something in your world that bothers you, particularly something that you find unjust.
It bothers me when people feel they have to hide who they really are to avoid being made fun of.
What is an object you could use to represent, or symbolize, this injustice? (Use Atticus’s saying as a model: “It’s a sin to kill a mockingbird.”)
I could use a chameleon because chameleons change color to fit their surroundings.
Now, complete the sentence frame to create your own saying:
“It’s a sin to turn someone into a chameleon.”
In the space below, provide an illustration of your symbol.

Resource 3.17

Checking for Understanding Questions: Chapters 11-14
Directions: As you read each chapter of the novel, answer the questions below.
Chapter
11

12

13

Text-Dependent Questions
Why does Jem destroy Mrs. Dubose’s flowers?
Jem destroys her flowers because he is angry that she insulted his father. After criticizing Scout for preferring overalls to dresses, she accuses Atticus of “going against his raising” by “lawing for niggers” and saying he’s “no better than the niggers and trash he works for.”
When Atticus states that Mrs. Dubose is a model of real courage, what does he mean?
Atticus believes that courage is when a person knows they are not going to succeed at something but does it anyway because it is the right thing to do. Mrs. Dubose was a morphine addict who was dying and, while it would have been easy to use the morphine for pain as she died, she overcame her addiction so she could die free, not beholden to anyone or anything.
What is linin’? Why is it done?
Linin’ is when someone sings a line of a song and the members of the congregation sing it back. It is done at Calpurnia’s church because many members of the black community cannot read.
What does Scout notice about Calpurnia?
She notices that when Calpurnia is at the black church, she speaks “nigger-talk” even though she is better educated than many of her friends. Calpurnia explains that she wouldn’t fit in if she spoke the way she does in white society and she would come across as arrogant, like she was trying to be better than everyone else.
Why does Aunt Alexandra come to visit?
She comes to help Atticus with the children during the trial. She believes it would be good for them (Scout especially) to have a feminine influence.
How does Aunt Alexandra explain human behavior?
Aunt Alexandra explains human behavior as hereditary and directly linked to one’s family. Each family has a
“streak” that determines a particular flaw that will be evident in members of that family. Not only does family “cause” behavior, but it also determines what is appropriate behavior. The longer a family has been on a piece of land, the finer it is, and the fact that the Finches are “fine folks” explains (in her mind) why
Scout cannot associate with Walter Cunningham.

14

Why does Aunt Alexandra want to dismiss Calpurnia?
Aunt Alexandra wants to dismiss Calpurnia after hearing that she took the children to her church. She believes Calpurnia does not discipline the children enough or teach them how they should behave as members of the Finch family.
How does Atticus explain rape to Scout?
As always, Atticus uses his “lawyer language” to speak to his children, and in this case it has the added bonus of keeping a troubling topic rather dry and vague for a child. He defines rape for Scout as “carnal knowledge of a female by force and without consent.”
Why does Dill run away from home?
Dill runs away from home because he believes his parents aren’t interested in him – it seems that they get along better without him, so he would rather be in Maycomb where he is treated like part of the Finch family. Resource 3.21

Checking for Understanding Questions: Chapters 15-16
Directions: As you read each chapter of the novel, answer the questions below.
Chapter
15

Text-Dependent Questions
What is the mood in Maycomb before the trial?
The mood is uneasy – a number of men meet with Atticus the night before the trial to discuss their concerns, particularly for Tom Robinson’s safety.
Why is Jem worried?
Jem is worried because a group of men shows up in the front yard to talk to Atticus and Jem fears they are going to hurt Atticus.
How does Scout stop the mob?
She jumps into the middle and begins talking to Mr. Cunningham about his entailment and his son, Walter.
This forces Mr. Cunningham to be an individual rather than an anonymous member of a mob and forces him to consider Atticus’s position – would he want men to attack him in front of his son? Considering these things, he gets the men to leave.

16

Who is Dolphus Raymond?
Dolphus Raymond is a white man who has a colored mistress and mixed children. He lives apart from society, particularly since his fiancée killed herself. He is seen (at this point in the novel) as the town drunk, always drinking from a Co-Cola bottle full of whiskey in a paper sack. We later learn that he only pretends to be drunk so that people will be able to “explain” his unusual behavior away rather than feel uncomfortable. Explain the following statement: “He really intends to defend Tom Robinson.”
The townspeople know that Atticus has been appointed to defend Tom Robinson, but they assume he will be the lawyer in name only, merely going through the motions but allowing Tom to get a guilty verdict with minimal fight. They are shocked that he is actually planning to work hard to defend Tom, trying to get a not guilty verdict.

Resource 3.23

Think-Write-Pair-Share: Revisiting Multiple
Perspectives and Courage
How did these chapters illustrate Atticus’s advice to Scout to “climb in someone else’s skin and walk around in it”?
Answers will vary, but students should recognize that Scout forced Mr. Cunningham to put himself in Atticus’s shoes – would he want to be attacked by a mob in front of his own children?
How did these chapters illustrate Atticus’s definition of “courage” in Chapter 11?
Answers will vary, but students should recognize that Atticus knows he will probably not be successful in his defense and that he will receive a lot of criticism for it, but he does it anyway because it is the right thing to do.

Pair-Share
1. Student A shares his/her responses with Student B.
2. Student B asks at least two clarifying questions about Student A’s response.
a. Optional Sentence Frames:
i. What did you mean when you said . . .? ii. Why do you think . . .? iii. Could you give an example of . . .?
3. Then Student B shares his/her response with Student A, and Student A asks clarifying questions of Student B.

Resource 4.4

Checking for Understanding Questions: Chapters 17-19
Directions: As you read each chapter of the novel, answer the questions below.
Chapter
17

Text-Dependent Questions
What does Atticus ask Mr. Tate?
Atticus asks Mr. Tate if he and Mr. Ewell called a doctor. He also asks Mr. Tate to describe Mayella’s injuries, particularly which eye was bruised.

Where do the Ewells live?
The Ewells live behind the town garbage dump in what was once a Negro cabin.

Why does Atticus want Mr. Ewell to write his name?
Atticus wants to show that Mr. Ewell is left-handed and thus could have caused the bruises on the right side of Mayella’s face.
18

Why does Mayella think Atticus is making fun of her?
She thinks Atticus is making fun of her because he keeps calling her “ma’am” and “Miss Mayella.” The fact that she takes this common kindness as mockery tells us how miserable her life is – no one has ever treated her with this kindness before.

What does Mayella want Tom Robinson to chop?
She wants Tom Robinson to chop a chiffarobe, or a piece of furniture with drawers and space for hanging clothes. 19

How does Tom Robinson place his hand on the Bible?
He has to use his right arm to place it on the Bible, but it keeps falling off.

What happened to his arm?
The muscles were torn loose from the bones when he got it caught in a cotton gin.

Why does Tom Robinson visit the Ewell place?
Tom Robinson visits the Ewell place because Mayella would call him in to help her with chores. He feels sorry for her because she has no one to help her, which is why he is so willing to help her when she asks.

Resource 4.6

Trial Evidence Chart
As you read Chapters 17-19, fill in the chart with each witness’s answers to the questions on the left. In each box, provide both a complete sentence answering the question and a quotation from the novel to support your answer.
After you have filled in the chart for all four witnesses and discussed your answers as a class, use the information in the chart to decide who you believe to be telling the truth for each question. You will need to give a reason for your decision.

Question

Had Tom ever come inside the Ewell’s fence before? On the day in question, when Mayella asked
Tom to come inside the fence, what did she ask
Tom to do for her?

Heck Tate’s
Answer

Bob Ewell’s
Answer

Mayella Ewell’s
Answer

Tom Robinson’s
Answer

(Chapter 17)

(Chapter 17)

(Chapter 18)

(Chapter 19)

Answer:

Answer:

Answer:

Answer:

N/A

N/A

No – this was the first time. Yes – Mayella had asked him in on multiple occasions Quotation:

Quotation:

Quotation:

N/A

N/A

“I did not, I certainly did not” (184)

Answer:

Answer:

Answer:

Answer:

N/A

N/A

She asked him to chop up a chiffarobe.

She asked him to help with the door and then get something from on top of the chiffarobe.

Quotation:

Quotation:

N/A

N/A

Quotation:
“I said come here, nigger, and bust up this chiffarobe for me”
(180).

What happened when
Tom was inside the house? I believe . . .

I believe ____________ because . . .
Answers will vary.

Quotation:
“Well, I went lots of times” (191)
I believe ____________ because . . .
Answers will vary.

Quotation:
“she says to just step on that chair yonder an’ git that box down from on top a the chiffarobe”
(193)

Answer:

Answer:

Answer:

Answer:

He beat and raped

He beat and raped

He beat and raped

Mayella grabs Tom around the legs while he

I believe ____________ because . . .

Who was Bob Ewell yelling at?

Mayella.

Mayella.

Mayella.

reaches for the box and then kisses him.

Quotation:

Quotation:

Quotation:

“asked her if he beat her like that, she said yes he had . . . Asked her if he took advantage of her and she said yes he did”
(167)

“I run up to th’ window and I seen . . .” (173)

“So he come in the yard an’ I went in the house to get him the nickel and I turned around an’
‘fore I knew it he was on me” (180)

Answer:

Answer:

Answer:

Answer:

N/A

N/A

Tom Robinson

Mayella

Resource 4.6
Answers will vary.

Quotation:
“She reached up an’ kissed me ‘side of th’ face” (194)

I believe ____________ because . . .
Answers will vary.

Why did Tom run away?

Quotation:

Quotation:

Quotation:

Quotation:

N/A

N/A

“next thing I knew Papa was in the room a’ standing over me hollerin’ who done it, who done it” (180-181)

“He says you goddamn whore, I’ll kill ya” (194)

Answer:

Answer:

Answer:

Answer:

N/A

He was afraid of being caught because he knew he was guilty.

N/A

Quotation:

He was afraid of being caught because he knew he would be assumed guilty as a black man.

N/A

Quotation:

Quotation:
N/A

Who harmed Mayella
Ewell?

Quotation:
“Well, I run around the house to get in, but he run out the door just ahead of me” (175)
Answer:

Answer:

Answer:

Tom Robinson

Tom Robinson

Tom Robinson

He doesn’t know, but it wasn’t him.

Quotation:

Answers will vary.

“I was scared, suh” (195)

Answer:

Quotation:

I believe ____________ because . . .

Quotation:

Quotation:
“Mr. Finch, I was runnin’

I believe ____________ because . . .
Answers will vary.

Resource 4.6

Did this person provide any other important information? “I asked her who hurt her and she said it was
Tom Robinson” (167)

“I seen that black nigger yonder ruttin’ on my
Mayella!” (173)

“He hit me agin an’ agin
. . . he chunked me on the floor an’ choked me
‘n took advantage of me” (180)

so fast I didn’t know what happened” (194)

Answer:

Answer:

Answer:

Answer:

Mayella’s injuries were on the right side of her face. He is left-handed.

Her father is abusive when drunk.

Mr. Ewell sexually abuses his daughter.

Quotation:

Quotation:

“’He does tollable, ‘cept when’ . . . ‘Except when he’s drinking?’ asked
Atticus so gently that
Mayella nodded” (183)

“She says she never kissed a grown man before an’ she might as well kiss a nigger. She says what her papa do to her don’t count”
(194)

Quotation:
“It was her right eye,
Mr. Finch. I remember now, she was bunged up on that side of her face”
(168)
Where did this person get his/her information
(for example, were they an eyewitness or did they hear it from someone else)?

How did this person behave on the witness stand? In other words, how would you describe them as a person?

Quotation:
“You’re left-handed, Mr.
Ewell” (177)

Answer:

Answer:

Answer:

Answer:

He got most of it from
Bob and Mayella, but he saw Mayella’ injuries for himself. He saw it himself.

She saw it herself.

He saw it himself.

Quotation:

Quotation:

Quotation:

Quotation:

“Mr. Ewell came in, very excited he was, and said get out to his house quick, some nigger’d raped his girl” (167)

“I sawed who he was, all right” (175)

“I did not. I certainly did not” (184)

“I was goin’ home as usual that evenin’, an’ when I passed the Ewell place Miss Mayella were on the porch” (192)

Answer:

Answer:

Answer:

Answer:

He answers all of the questions politely.

He is very rude.

She is hostile.

He is honest and respectful. I believe ____________ because . . .
Answers will vary.

I believe ____________ because . . .
Answers will vary.

I believe ____________ because . . .
Answers will vary.

Resource 4.6

Was this person willing to admit to information that might make them look bad?

Quotation:

Quotation:

Quotation:

Quotation:

“No sir” (167)

“There will be no more audibly obscene speculations on any subject from anybody in this courtroom as long as I’m sitting here” (172)

“Mayella’s hostility, which had subsided to grudging neutrality, flared again” (183)

“I did not, suh” (194)

Answer:

Answer:

Answer:

Answer:

Yes – he admits that he didn’t call a doctor.

No – he becomes angry.

No – she either starts crying or becomes angry. Yes – he admits to being arrested for disorderly conduct. Quotation:

Quotation:

“Don’t want him doin’ me like he done Papa, tryin’ to make him out lefthanded” (179)

“Yes suh, I had to serve
‘cause I couldn’t pay the fine” (190)

Quotation:
“It wasn’t necessary, Mr.
Finch. She was mighty banged up, something sho’ happened, it was obvious” (167)

What does this person look like?

Quotation:
“Mr. Ewell turned angrily to the judge and said he didn’t see what his being left-handed had to do with it, that he was a Christ-fearing man and Atticus Finch was taking advantage of him” (178)

Answer:

Answer:

Answer:

Answer:

He looks professional and neat.

He looks like he is clean for the first time in his life. She looks like she tries to keep clean.

He is a cripple – he cannot use his left arm.

Quotation:

Quotation:

“Mayella looked as if she tried to keep clean”
(179)

“He looked oddly off balance, but it was not from the way he was standing. His left arm was fully twelve inches shorter than his right, and hung at his side. It ended in a small shriveled hand, and

Quotation:
“Mr. Tate had dressed for the occasion. He wore an ordinary business suit” (166)

Quotation:
“Mr. Ewell had a scalded look; as if an overnight soaking had deprived him of protective layers of dirt, his skin appeared to be sensitive to the elements” (179)

I believe ____________ because . . .
Answers will vary.

I believe ____________ because . . .
Answers will vary.

Resource 4.6 from as far away as the balcony I could see that it was no use to him”
(186)
How would you describe this person’s body language? (For example, do they fidget and act nervous, are they softspoken and confident, etc.) Answer:

Answer:

Answer:

Answer:

He seems confident and interested. He seems malicious, like he is trying to cause trouble. She seems nervous and sneaky. He seems nervous but honest. Quotation:

Quotation:

“she had twisted her handkerchief into a sweaty rope” (180)

“Tom denied it three times in one breath, but quietly, with no hint of whining in his voice, and
I found myself believing him in spite of protesting too much. He seemed to be a respectable Negro”
(192)

Quotation:
“He was sitting forward in the witness chair, his hands clasped between his knees, listening attentively to the circuit solicitor” (166)

Quotation:
“Mr. Ewell was sitting smugly in the witness chair, surveying his handiwork” (173)

I believe ____________ because . . .
Answers will vary.

Resource 4.8

TEPAC Analytical Paragraph Chart – Sample
Prompt: What positive character trait does Mrs. Dubose show despite her prejudice?
Student Response (Topic Sentence/Claim): Mrs. Dubose is a courageous woman.
Evidence

Paraphrase Evidence

Analysis of Evidence

Concluding Statement

Provide evidence from the novel supporting your claim.

Summarize this evidence in your own words. Explain the significance of this piece of evidence, or how it supports your claim. Explain how your evidence connects back to the topic sentence or theme/claim. “According to her views, she died beholden to nothing and nobody. She was the bravest person I ever knew”
(112)

Based on her beliefs, Mrs. Dubose died free from debt to anything or anyone. Because of this, she was the bravest person Atticus knew.

Courage has more to do with holding onto your beliefs than exerting power over another person.

Since Mrs. Dubose stuck to her beliefs in quitting morphine, she can be considered a courageous person despite her flaws.

Rewrite with Academic Language:

Rewrite with Academic Language:

Rewrite with Academic Language:

Rewrite with Academic Language:

For example, on page 112, Atticus says, “According to her views, she died beholden to nothing and nobody. She was the bravest person I ever knew.”

In this quote, Atticus describes Mrs.
Dubose as courageous because she dies as a free woman, not a slave to her morphine addiction.

This suggests that courage has more to do with holding onto your beliefs than exerting power over another person. To sum up, since Mrs. Dubose stuck to her beliefs in quitting morphine, she can be considered a courageous person despite her flaws.

Resource 4.10

Checking for Understanding Questions: Chapters 20-21
Directions: As you read each chapter of the novel, answer the questions below.
Chapter
20

Text-Dependent Questions
Why does Dolphus Raymond pretend to be drinking liquor?
Many people don’t approve of the way he lives – with a black mistress and mixed children. He pretends to be drunk so they can say he won’t change his ways because he is drunk; this keeps them from the discomfort of realizing he prefers black people and disagrees with them.

Why does Jem feel confident that Atticus will win?
He is innocent and sees the truth of the trial without years of prejudice mixed in. The evidence points toward Tom’s innocence, and Jem lacks the experience with prejudice to realize that the town will not give
Tom a not guilty verdict.
21

As they wait for the verdict, Scout thinks of earlier events. What are they?
Scout thinks back to the day Atticus shot Tim Johnson, foreshadowing that something bad will happen, but also reminding the reader of the scene where Atticus was the one to fight Maycomb’s “usual disease” of racism. What does Reverend Sykes say about court?
He tells the children, “I ain’t ever seen any jury decided in favor of a colored man over a white man.”
Despite the evidence in Tom’s favor, Reverend Sykes knows enough of society to know that an honest verdict is unlikely.

Resource 5.2

Checking for Understanding Questions: Chapters 22-25
Directions: As you read each chapter of the novel, answer the questions below.
Chapter
22

Text-Dependent Questions
Who sends food over to the Finches? Why?
The black community sends food over to the Finches to show appreciation for Atticus’s hard work on Tom
Robinson’s behalf.

What does Atticus mean when he says, “only children weep”?
Only children are innocent and unbiased enough to truly feel the injustice in what happened to Tom. Many adults don’t even think about it; those who do recognize it are so hardened by years of injustices that they no longer feel sorrow over it.
23

What is Bob Ewell’s threat?
He threatens to “get Atticus” if it takes the rest of his life.

Where is Tom Robinson?
He is imprisoned in Enfield Prison Farm, which is 70 miles away from Maycomb in Chester County.

What bill will have to be paid “one of these days”?
The “bill” is the consequences for years of what Atticus refers to as “low-grade white men who’ll take advantage of a Negro’s innocence.” Atticus believes that the white people cannot commit this many injustices against an entire race without one day having to suffer consequences for it.
24

Describe the conversation at the Missionary Society meeting.
The conversation is hypocritical – the ladies are talking about the poor Mruna tribe in Africa and the missionaries who need their help to civilize them, but they are also complaining about their servants sulking over Tom’s conviction.

What event happens at the end of the chapter?
Atticus tells Aunt Alexandra, Calpurnia, Miss Maudie, and Scout that Tom was shot 17 times while trying to escape from prison.

How do Miss Maudie, Aunt Alexandra and Scout handle the news?
They are shocked. Aunt Alexandra finally expresses concern for Atticus rather than judgment, and Miss
Maudie stands up for him and the town, saying that some of them appreciate and trust Atticus to do the right thing. After a few moments, they go back and host the party like true ladies.
25

Explain the statement, “Tom was tried in the secret courts of men’s hearts.” In what way are hearts like courts? Just like courts, our hearts make judgments that lead to consequences and affect our behavior toward others. In this case, Atticus means that Tom was guilty in the hearts and minds of the people simply

Resource 5.2 because he was black, which prevented them from objectively considering any evidence on his behalf.

Resource 5.4

Responses to the Trial
After you read Chapters 22-23, fill in the chart with each character’s responses to the trial. In each box, provide a complete sentence answering the question, and provide a quotation from the text supporting your response when asked. Character

How did he/she react to the events of the trial?

Why do you think he/she reacted this way? Answer:

Jem

Atticus

Jem is losing his innocence. He is
Jem is deeply upset. He unprejudiced, so he saw cries immediately after but the evidence clearly and also becomes angry recognized Tom’s whenever Scout brings it innocence. He was up. disillusioned by the
Quotation:
prejudice his neighbors
“I ain’t right, Atticus” (212) showed.

The pervasive prejudice that allowed the jury to send an innocent man to death simply because he was black took away Jem’s innocence and pure appreciation for the good in his community.

Answer:

Atticus is disappointed in the townspeople, but he does recognize the small change (the time it took the jury to decide) and finds hope in it. He still does everything to do what is right and is determined that his children learn to do the same. Society shaped Atticus into an advocate, who fights against prejudice and does what is right, even when it elicits criticism.

Miss Maudie is realistic – she is not surprised by what happens and she doesn’t wallow in it.
However, she still recognizes and appreciates the small changes and the people who do good, and she refuses to let Jem lose all faith in his neighbors.

Society has shaped Miss
Maudie into a strong, independent woman. She is not afraid to stand up for what is right, even if it brings criticism. She looks out for those on the outside – Jem, who is disillusioned over the trial, and Scout, who is a tomboy – and offers them hope, strengthening them as well.

Atticus is disappointed but determined not to shield his children from the reality of the world. He is also determined to help
Tom with an appeal.
Quotation:
“This is their home, sister.
. . . We’ve made it this way for them, they might as well learn to cope with it”
(212)
Answer:
Miss Maudie does not approve of what happened, but she is determined to see the good in the situation.

Miss Maudie

How did society shape or influence this individual?

Quotation:
“I simply want to tell you that there are some men in this world who were born to do our unpleasant jobs for us. Your father’s one of them” (215)

Resource 5.4
Answer:

The colored community They bring food to the
Finches’ house.
Quotation:
“The kitchen table was loaded with enough food to bury the family” (213)
Answer:
He threatens Atticus.

Quotation:

Bob Ewell

“this morning Mr. Bob
Ewell stopped Atticus on the post office corner, spat in his face, and told him he’d get him if it took the rest of his life” (217)
Answer:
Miss Stephanie is thrilled at the excitement and opportunity to gossip.

Miss Stephanie

Quotation:
“Miss Stephanie Crawford was busy telling it to Miss
Maudie Atkinson and Mr.
Avery” (214)
Answer:

The member of the
Cunningham family who was on the jury

Aunt Alexandra

The Cunningham family member was shaken up by the evidence and willing to set free the man he was ready to lynch the night before. Quotation:
“You might like to know that there was one fellow who took considerable wearing down – in the beginning he was rarin’ for an outright acquittal”
(202)
Answer:
She shows concern for

They knew Tom would likely be convicted but appreciate Atticus’s efforts to defend him based on truth rather than prejudice. They are beaten down – they know better than to expect Tom to be freed – but they support one another and they show appreciation to those who show them love, regardless of race.

Bob Ewell is likely embarrassed. He got the guilty verdict he wanted, but Atticus made him look like a fool in front of the town and made it clear that he sexually abuses and beats his daughter.
Winning the case didn’t earn Bob Ewell any respect or improvement in his social status.

As a member of the lowest class of white society, poverty and exclusion have hardened Bob into a mean man out for himself and bitter toward all those who look down on him.

Miss Stephanie is a superficial and selfish woman who doesn’t think deeply enough about other people’s feelings to recognize injustice – she only sees a good story.

Miss Stephanie lives in the safety of the majority, where life is easy if you don’t rock the boat, so she sees the world around her as entertainment.

After the courthouse incident, the Cunninghams gained respect for the
Finch family and were willing to listen to what
Atticus had to say. When they listened, they heard truth that they couldn’t ignore and were willing to fight for it. However, they did not yet have the strength of conviction to not be persuaded to a guilty verdict in the end.

The Cunninghams were part of the majority when it came to views about black people until the night in front of the jail.
They saw a white man willing to get hurt protecting a black man, in part because he genuinely believed in his innocence, and they were motivated to reconsider their beliefs.

Regardless of her obsession with society and

Aunt Alexandra looks at society as a set of rules

Resource 5.4
Atticus, not only in his reaction to the case but also in light of Bob Ewell’s threats. what is proper, Aunt
Alexandra cares deeply for her family and seems to recognize the justice in
Atticus’s actions. All she does is to keep her family from getting hurt, even when it doesn’t seem that way. she has to follow to fit in.
She follows them precisely and tries to teach her family to follow them as well because she sees it as a way of protecting them from shame.

While again, this is from
Jem’s perspective, we see
While we don’t see Boo
Boo Radley as a person
Radley, Jem’s experience who is fearful and who at the trial leads him to sees the bad in society and believe Boo Radley doesn’t chooses to detach from it, come out because he not wanting to be a part of wants to stay away from it. society.

Society isolates Boo
Radley for being different, and unlike Atticus who fights against it, Boo chooses to retreat to his own world where it is
“safe.”

Quotation:
“You are the last person I thought would turn bitter over this” (212)
Answer:

Boo Radley

Quotation:
“I think I’m beginning to understand why Boo
Radley’s stayed shut up in the house all this time. . . . it’s because he wants to stay inside” (227)

Resource 5.6

Say-Mean-Matter Chart
Excerpt

1

2

3

4

“Say”

“Mean”

“Matter”

Summarize the text in your own words.

What does the passage mean? What are its implications, motivations, or intentions? So what? Why is this passage important to the topic, novel, time period, or mankind itself?

Atticus interrupts the party to tell the ladies that Tom was shot 17 times while trying to escape. Aunt
Alexandra is frustrated that the town lets him stress over what they’re afraid to do. Miss Maudie says they trust him to do what’s right.

The passage shows that
Tom, in trying to escape, has lost all hope in an appeal (and now will never be exonerated). He has now lost not only his freedom but his life for something he didn’t do. However, not all the citizens of Maycomb are prejudiced, and this is what it truly means to have
“background.”

The passage reveals that society breaks people down to hopelessness and illustrates the utter destructiveness of prejudice. The passage defines the quality of a person as a sense of rightness and trust in those who fight for it.

The town gossiped bout
Tom’s death for a few days, now taking Atticus’s side and saying he would have won an appeal but Tom was a typical “nigger,” just bailing without a plan.

The passage characterizes many of the people in
Maycomb as people with no substance or core beliefs – they are fickle and superficial, just looking for the next good story to gossip about. They are also unaffected by the tragedy of Tom’s death, just spinning it to fit their preconceived notions.

The passage reveals that pervasive prejudice desensitizes people to the tragedy of injustice and keeps it going rather than letting it die down or raising up people to fight against it.

Mr. Underwood wrote an angry editorial comparing
Tom’s death to killing a mockingbird because he believes it is a sin to kill a cripple The passage shows hope for change, as even the racist
Mr. Underwood sees the injustice in the situation. It also highlights the novel’s theme that it is wrong to harm the innocent and helpless. The passage highlights that there are few voices willing to speak up and adds to our growing definition of what is right and wrong – in this case, persecution of the helpless is as inexcusable as persecution of the innocent.

At first, Scout thinks justice has been carried out in the courts but she realizes Tom had already lost because of prejudice. This passage illuminates
Scout’s loos of innocence and raises the point that justice cannot be carried out when it has already been “administered” in men’s hearts.

The passage clearly shows the Big Idea – Scout is being shaped here by society and changing her views. We see that prejudice hardens people from hearing truth, like the people on the jury.

Resource 5.6

Resource 5.7

TEPAC Analytical Paragraph Chart
Prompt: Why do you believe Mr. Underwood compared Tom Robinson to a mockingbird?
Student Response (Topic Sentence/Claim): _______________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Student answers may vary, but key points might include:
Mockingbirds are innocent
Tom is crippled/helpless, which Mr. Underwood sees as reason not to kill him
Tom is innocent – he didn’t rape Mayella Ewell and is being persecuted for it

Resource 5.9

Checking for Understanding Questions: Chapters 26-30
Directions: As you read each chapter of the novel, answer the questions below.
Chapter
26

Text-Dependent Questions
Describe the irony of Miss Gates’s statement, “We (American People) don’t believe in persecuting anyone.”
Miss Gates makes this statement condemning Hitler and his persecution of the Jews; however, it is ironic because Scout overheard her the day of the trial commenting on how it’s time someone taught the black community a lesson because they were getting above themselves and expressing concern that they will think they can marry white people.

Why does Jem get upset with Scout?
Jem gets upset with Scout because he doesn’t want to hear about the trial anymore. He wants to forget about it because it was so upsetting to him; however, Atticus thinks he is just storing it away until he can process it.
27

What does Bob Ewell start doing?
Bob Ewell starts harassing people involved with the trial. He gets and loses a WPA job and blames it on
Atticus. He tries to break into Judge Taylor’s house when he thinks no one will be home. He stalks Helen
Robinson on her way to work, making crude comments.

Describe the costume Scout will wear for the pageant. What is it made of?
Scout is going to be a ham for the agricultural pageant. It is made of brown cloth and chicken wire.
28

Describe the mood at the beginning of the chapter.
The mood at the beginning of the chapter is a bit eerie. It is dark and quiet, the children are talking about ghosts, Cecil Jacobs scares them, and they walk past the Radley Place. All of this foreshadows the attack later in the chapter.

How does Scout’s costume save her life?
The attacker’s knife scrapes against the chicken wire on Scout’s costume instead of cutting her.
29

How did Boo know Jem and Scout were in trouble?
The attack was in front of his house, so when he heard the children screaming, he came outside to rescue the children.

How does Scout describe Boo?
He is thin and pale with “sickly white hands that had never seen sun” and left “greasy sweat streaks” on the wall. His eyes are so colorless that he appears almost blind. It is clear he is very shy and uncomfortable – he even has a small spasm; however, he does seem more comfortable around the Finch children, as when he sees Scout, the tension drains from his face and offers her a “timid smile.”
30

Why is Atticus so worried throughout the chapter?
He thinks (because of Scout’s limited perspective during the attack) that Jem killed Bob Ewell and that Mr.
Tate is trying to protect Jem. He does want Jem to grow up with the reputation of having a daddy who gets

Resource 5.9 him out of trouble – he wants to deal with the situation as anyone would.

Who stabbed Bob Ewell?
Boo Radley stabbed Bob Ewell – the knife that killed him was a kitchen knife, not the switchblade Mr. Tate found at the scene.

What does Scout compare Boo’s potential exposure to?
Scout compares Boo’s potential exposure to killing a mockingbird – he has done something nice, saving the children’s lives, but telling people would bring him unwanted attention, in effect punishing him.

Resource 5.11

Round-Robin: Mr. Ewell’s Revenge
Why do you think it was so important to Mr. Ewell to get revenge on Atticus? What does this tell us about him as a person? Answers will vary, but might include the following points: he was humiliated (looked foolish in front of the town and was accused of raping/beating his own daughter), he is vengeful and selfish, and he is cowardly (instead of attacking the adults directly, he goes after Atticus’s children, Judge Taylor’s supposedly empty house, and a black woman who has no power in society)

Round-Robin Rules
1. Each student should share his or her response, one at a time.
2. As each student reads, no one should interrupt: all discussion should wait until everyone has shared.
3. If you have the same response as another student, you may not pass. Instead, begin your response with one of the following statements:
a. “I have the same opinion as . . .”
b. “I also think . . .”
4. After everyone has shared, you may discuss one another’s responses.

Resource 5.12
Scout cannot see what is happening when she and Jem are attacked under the tree, but she eventually realizes “that there were now four people under the tree.” As you create your flow map, identify who each of the four people are and provide a quotation (with the page number in parentheses) to support your response.
Person #1 is Scout. I can tell because in the text, Harper Lee writes, “something crushed the chicken wire around me” (262).
Person #2 is Jem. I can tell because in the text, Harper Lee writes, “’Run, Scout! Run! Run!’ Jem screamed” (261).
Person #3 is Bob Ewell. I can tell because in the text, Harper Lee writes, “My toes touched trousers, a belt buckle, buttons, something I could not identify, a collar, and a face. A prickly stubble on the face told me it was not Jem’s. I smelled whiskey” (263).
Person #4 is Boo Radley (or, at this point, an unidentified man). I can tell because in the text, Harper Lee writes, “Suddenly he was jerked backwards and flung on the ground, almost carrying me with him . . . It was slowly coming to me that there were now four people under the tree” (262).
Students should summarize the attack (as described in the lesson plan) in the empty space at the bottom of this page, using their flow maps to help them.

Resource 5.13

Think-Write-Pair-Share: Mr. Tate’s Decision
Why does Mr. Tate claim Bob Ewell killed himself even though that isn’t what really happened? Why does Scout say telling the truth would be “sort of like shootin’ a mockingbird”? Do you agree with his decision? Why or why not?
Answers will vary, but should be similar for the first couple questions. Mr. Tate claims Bob Ewell killed himself to protect
Boo Radley. Boo is uncomfortable around people, but everyone would want to come see/thank/bring gifts to the man who saved Atticus Finch’s children, and this would be like torture to him. Scout says this would be “sort of like shootin’ a mockingbird” because Boo hasn’t done anything wrong (has, in fact, done something good) but would be tortured or punished by all the attention.

Pair-Share
1. Student A shares his/her response with Student B.
2. Student B asks at least two clarifying questions about Student A’s response.
a. Optional Sentence Frames:
i. How did you feel when . . .? ii. Why did you . . .? iii. Why do you think the other person . . .?
3. Then Student B shares his/her response with Student A, and Student A asks clarifying questions of Student B.

Resource 5.14

Checking for Understanding Questions: Chapter 31
Directions: As you read each chapter of the novel, answer the questions below.
Chapter
31

Text-Dependent Questions
What words does Scout use to describe Boo Radley?
She refers to him as a “gentleman” and a “neighbor,” calling him “Mr. Arthur.” These terms show a change from her younger days when she acted out stories about the malevolent phantom in the basement.

What is Atticus’ final statement about people?
He tells Scout that most people are nice “when you finally see them,” meaning that most prejudice is unfounded (referring specifically to Boo Radley but applicable to many misunderstood characters – Tom,
Dolphus Raymond, even Mrs. Dubose to a small degree).

Where does Atticus spend the night? What does this tell us about him?
He spends the night in Jem’s room, which shows us that he is a loving father who cares deeply for his children. Resource 5.16

Close Read: Standing in Someone Else’s Shoes
Excerpt from Chapter 3
“First of all,” he said, “if you can learn a simple trick, Scout, you’ll get along a lot better with all kinds of folks. You never really understand a person until you consider things from his point of view – “
“Sir?”
“– until you climb into his skin and walk around in it.”
Atticus said I had learned many things today, and Miss Caroline had learned several things herself. She had learned not to hand something to a Cunningham, for one thing, but if Walter and I had put ourselves in her shoes we’d have seen it was an honest mistake on her part. We could not expect her to learn all Maycomb’s ways in one day, and we could not hold her responsible when she knew no better.

Review
We discussed what Atticus means here earlier in the unit. In the space below, write down what it means to climb into someone’s skin and walk around in it.
It means to see things from their perspective, to consider how they might see things and what they might know or not know (like Miss Caroline, who didn’t know that the Cunninghams don’t accept charity). It also means to consider how situations might make other people feel.

Resource 5.17

Illustrating Boo’s Point of View
Students should illustrate the paragraphs in Chapter 31 where Scout literally stands on the porch and describes the events of the book (multiple characters, multiple seasons) as Boo would have seen them. No key is provided because students should be encouraged to be creative, so there is no one “right” way to represent these paragraphs as long as they are rooted in the text.

Scout

Radley Place

Resource 5.17
What does Scout learn about Boo Radley from standing in Boo’s shoes and walking around in them?
Scout learns that Boo Radley was their neighbor and gave them gifts, but they never gave him anything in return, a fact that she regrets. He could see everything in her life and her brother’s life, and he came to care for them and view them as his children. He was always watching out for them and came to their rescue when they needed him.
Considering the symbol of the mockingbird we have discussed, how might Boo Radley be considered a mockingbird?
His father abuses him for a childhood prank and possible mental illness, locking him up and never allowing him to interact with others. This is hinted at in the first chapter and when Miss Maudie tells Scout that the Bible in the hand of some men is more dangerous than a whiskey bottle in the hand of another (referring to the Radleys, who she called foot-washing Baptists, or overly legalistic Christians who believed she would go to hell for caring too much about her flowers). In addition, the town gossips about him when he is simply a kind man who loves and protects the Finch children. He is hurting and isolated and deserves people’s sympathy, not their mocking and wild speculation.

Resource 6.4

TEPAC Analytical Paragraph Chart
Prompt: How did society shape and influence Tom Robinson in To Kill a Mockingbird?
Student Response (Topic Sentence/Claim): Society ‘s prejudice changed Tom Robinson from a moral family man and trusted worker into a reckless man with nothing left to live for.
Evidence

Paraphrase Evidence

Analysis of Evidence

Provide evidence showing what this character was like before the trial.

Summarize this evidence in your own words. Explain the significance of this piece of evidence, or what it reveals about this character.

“That boy’s worked for me eight years an’ I ain’t had a speck o’ trouble outta him” (195)

Link Deas trusted Tom as a dependable worker for eight years.

Tom had respect from a white man and was known for his positive character. Rewrite with Academic Language:

Rewrite with Academic Language:

Rewrite with Academic Language:

The description on p. 195 is a perfect illustration of Tom before the trial:
“That boy’s worked for me eight years an’ I ain’t had a speck o’ trouble otta him.” That is to say, Link Deas believes Tom is a trustworthy and dependable worker. The evidence highlights that Tom was known for his positive character, even to white men.

Resource 6.4
Evidence

Paraphrase Evidence

Analysis of Evidence

Concluding Statement

Provide evidence from the novel showing how this character was different because of the trial.

Summarize this evidence in your own words. Explain the significance of this piece of evidence, or how it shows that society influenced this character.

Explain how your two pieces of evidence connect back to the topic sentence or theme/claim.

“They said he just broke into a blind raving charge at the fence and started climbing over” (235)

Tom tried to escape from prison, running like crazy for the fence and starting to climb.

Tom was so hopeless of ever being freed by white men that he took his own chances, leading to his death.

The persecution and injustice society inflicted on Tom stripped him of all he had to live for and ultimately destroyed him.

Rewrite with Academic Language:

Rewrite with Academic Language:

Rewrite with Academic Language:

Rewrite with Academic Language:

The author cites evidence that illustrates the change in Tom after the trial: “They said he just broke into a blind raving charge at the fence ands started climbing over” (235).

Basically, Atticus is saying Tom tried to escape from prison, running like crazy for the fence and starting to climb over it.

This suggests Tom was so hopeless of ever being freed by white men that he took his own chances, leading to his death. The change in Tom clearly demonstrates that the persecution and injustice society inflicted on Tom stripped him of all he had to live for and ultimately destroyed him.

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