Title IX at 40
Title IX is a portion of the Education Amendments of 1972 which states "No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving federal financial assistance..." This federal civil rights law prohibits sex discrimination in education and has helped to eliminate and prevent barriers to students' success in school. It has helped open the door for girls to pursue math and science, provide fair treatment for pregnant and parenting students, and helps in protecting students from bullying and sexual harassment. (40th Anniversary of Title IX, 2013). And while the law applies to all aspects of educational opportunities, it is probably best known for its application to sports and for its action in breaking down barriers in sports for women and girls. (The Next Generation of Title IX: Athletics, 2012) Title IX requires that schools provide male and female students with equal opportunities to play sports, give male and female athletes equal shares of athletic scholarship dollars, and provide equal benefits and services to both males and females in areas such as facilities, coaching, and publicity. (The Next Generation of Title IX: Athletics, 2012)
Forty years ago, Title IX was passed and began leveling America's playing fields. In these 40 years, opportunities for female athletes have dramatically increased but inequality is still present. Thanks to Title IX, girls and women are playing sports at earlier ages and in much greater numbers than ever before, but they still face many hurdles on the road to equality. Before Title IX, only 1 in 27 girls played high school sports. College scholarships for female athletes were nonexistent and female college athletes received only two percent of overall athletic budgets. (Athletics Under Title IX, 2013) In 1972, only 295,000 girls competed in high school sports,...
Cited: Deborah L. Rhode, Christopher J. Walker (26 March 2008). GENDER EQUITY IN COLLEGE ATHLETICS: WOMEN COACHES AS A CASE STUDY. Stanford Journal of Civil Rights and Civil Liberties.
Lisa Maatz, Fatima Goss Graves (2012). Title IX: Working to Ensure Gender Equity in Education. Retrieved from http://www.ncwge.org/PDF/TitleIXat40.pdf
National Women 's Law Center. (June 2012). The Next Generation of Title IX: Athletics. Retrieved from http://www.nwlc.org/sites/default/files/pdfs/nwlcathletics_titleixfactsheet.pdf
(2013). 40th Anniversary of Title IX: The Next Generation. Retrieved from http://www.titleix.info/Resources/News-Articles/40th-Anniversary-of-Title-IX-The- Next-Generation.aspx
(2013). Athletics Under Title IX. Retrieved from http://www.titleix.info/10-Key-Areas-of-Title- IX/Athletics.aspx
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