tissue culture

Topics: Cell culture, Plant tissue culture, Growth medium Pages: 11 (3052 words) Published: November 8, 2013
CALLUS INDUCTION
By: Sonali Pradhan,08-11-2013

ABSTRACT

The present study describes a reliable method for callus induction of Hybanthus ennaspermus,an important medicinal plant plant. Calli were in vitro initiated from leaves segments using Murashige and Skog (1962) basal media. The effect of NAA (_-naphthalene acetic acid) and 2,4-D (2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid) on callus induction was investigated. It was found that growth regulators and their concentrations have obvious effects on the callus induction, the increment of callus index and callus physical appearance. The best callus induction capabilities were obtained with low levels of NAA However, supplemented medium with high concentrations of NAA led to relatively low callus frequency and the callus obtained turned to brown color. Generally, the highest frequencies of callus formation from leaves, explants were observed in the medium containing 1.0 mg /l of NAA..

INTRODUCTION:
Medicinal plants, which form the backbone of traditional medicine, have in the last few decades been the subject for very intense pharmacological studies; this has been brought about by the acknowledgement of the value of medicinal plants as potential sources of new compounds of therapeutics value and as sources of lead compounds in the drug development. In developing countries, it is estimated that about 80% of the population rely on traditional medicine for their primary health care. There arises a need therefore to screen medicinal plants for bioactive compounds as a basis for further pharmacological studies. Hybanthus enneaspermus L. Muell, a member of the Violaceae family, is a rare, perennial herb found in some of the warmer parts of the Deccan peninsula in India. Popularly called ‘Ratanpurus’ by the local Yanadi and Santal tribes, villagers and herbalists, this ethnobotanical herb is known to have unique medicinal properties. The preparations made from the leaves and tender stalks of the plant are used in herbal medicine for its aphrodisiac, demulcent and tonic properties. The root is diuretic and administrated as an infusion in gonorrhea and urinary infections (The Wealth of India 1959; Nagaraju and Rao 1996). The fruits and leaves are used as antidotes for scorpion stings and cobra bites by the Yanadi tribes (Raja Reddy et al. 1989; Sudarsanam and Sivaprasad 1995) Traditionally the plant is used as an aphrodisiac, demulcent, tonic, diuretic, in urinary infections, diarrhoea, leucorrhoea, dysuria, in inflammation and sterility (Yoganarasimhan, 2000) an infusion of the plant extract is given in case of cholera. The plant has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, antitussive, antiplasmodial, antimicrobial (Rajakaruna et al., 2002;) anti convulsant and free radical scavenging activity (Hemlatha et al., 2003). The plant is reported to contain aurantiamide acetate, isoaborinol, _-sitosterol and triterpene (Prakash, 1999; Retnam, 2003). In folklore the plant is used in case of gonorrhoea, urinary infections and in inflammatory conditions

This species is under threat due to their exploitation from natural habitat by traditional healers, overgrazing by animals, seasonal habitat, sporadic distribution and poor germination frequency of seeds under natural conditions. This herb being so medicinally important needs conservation and propagation both in vivo and in vitro. Plant tissue culture is a useful tool for the conservation and rapid propagation of rare and endangered medicinal plants (Saxena et al. 1997; Castillo and Jordan 1997; Sanyal et al. 1998). Since there is a few reports on in vitro of propagation through seed derived callus, the present work to obtain a rapid high regenerative callus from leaf explants of the plant as the first step is undertaken. The tissue culture technique is a best approach for in vitro propagation and assures the availability of callus as a source of explant and secondary...

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