Timeline of Materials

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Timeline of materials technology
BC
• 29,000–25,000 BC – First pottery appears
• 3rd millennium BC – Copper metallurgy is invented and copper is used for ornamentation
• 2nd millennium BC – Bronze is used for weapons and armour
• 16th century BC – The Hittites develop crude iron metallurgy
• 13th century BC – Invention of steel when iron and charcoal are combined properly
• 10th century BC – Glass production begins in ancient Near East
• 1st millennium BC – Pewter beginning to be used in China and Egypt
• 3rd century BC – Wootz steel, the first crucible steel, is invented in ancient India
• 50s BC – Glassblowing techniques flourish in Phoenicia
• 20s BC – Roman architect Vitruvius describes low-water-content method for mixing concrete
1st millennium
• 3rd century – Cast iron widely used in Han Dynasty China
• 4th century – Iron pillar of Delhi is the oldest surviving example of corrosion-resistant steel
• 8th century – Porcelain is invented in Tang Dynasty China
• 8th century – Tin-glazing of ceramics invented by Arabic chemists and potters in Basra, Iraq
• 9th century – Stone paste ceramics invented in Iraq
• 9th century – Lusterware appears in Mesopotamia
2nd millennium
• 1448 – Johann Gutenberg develops type metal alloy
• 1450s – Cristallo, a clear soda-based glass is invented by Angelo Barovier
• 1540 – Vannoccio Biringuccio publishes first systematic book on metallurgy
• 1556 – Georg Agricola's influential book on metallurgy
• 1590 – Glass lenses are developed in the Netherlands and used for the first time in microscopes and telescopes
18th century
• 1738 – Metallic zinc processed by distillation from calamine and charcoal patented by William Champion
• 1740 – Crucible steel technique developed by Benjamin Huntsman
• 1779 – Hydraulic cement (stucco) patented by Bryan Higgins for use as an exterior plaster
• 1799 – Acid battery made from copper/zinc by Alessandro Volta
19th century
• 1821 – Thermocouple invented by Thomas Johann

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