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In the United States there are three branches of government which includes: the executive, legislative and judicial. All three branches have a distinct and critical function in the role of the government. They were created in Articles 1 legislative, 2 executive and 3 judicial of the United States Constitution ( Trethan, 2012).
The executive branch is headed by the President, and he makes laws official. It is the duty of the President to run the federal government; also the executive power is his responsibility. It is his job is to enforce, execute, and administer the laws and government. Elections occur every four years in the United States; and at that time everyone who is of age and registered to vote can voice their opinion on who they think is qualified to be President. It is at this time that the President is elected. The candidate can serve two four year terms if elected. The President of the United States approves and carries out the laws that have been passed by the legislative branch (Truman Library, 2011). The Vice President also falls under the executive branch as well as the cabinet members. They are made up of 15 major departments which includes: Justice, Interior, Transportation, Health and Human Services, State, Labor, Agriculture, Energy, Veteran Affairs, Treasury, Housing and Urban Development, Commerce, Education, (Erickson, 2011). The President receives advice from the cabinet about important issues.
The legislative branch makes the laws, and is known as Congress. This branch has an important duty to make laws, and declare what acts are crimes. Congress is separated into two parts the Senate and the House of Representative. The Senate has 100 senators; two representatives are chosen from each state. The senators are elected by their state, and serve a six year term (Kelly, 2011).
The judicial branch power is vested in the court system. The judicial branch gives details of what the Constitution is and the laws that was passed by Congress. The judicial branch is headed by the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court is unlike the criminal court system in that the Supreme Court rules if something is constitutional or unconstitutional. There are nine Supreme Court justices; eight of the justices are associate justices and the remaining is the chief justice. These judges are nominated by the President and approved by the Senate. The Supreme Court is the highest court; and there is no limit on the terms the justices serves. The ruling of the Supreme Court is final, and no other court can overturn the decision (Three Branches of Government, 2011). The branches may be separate, but all three have to work together in order for the government to work effectively.
The state’s leaders wanted to form a national government that was strong and fair. Most importantly they wanted to put a stop to the government abuse of power and protect the freedom of the citizens. To ensure this, it was decided to create the three branches. Again, the separation was to prevent any one branch from becoming dominate or obtaining more power than any other. This was a form of checks and balances. They separated and balanced the government power so that it could be a safeguard for the interest of the majority ruled and the minority rights, equality, and liberty (United States Constitution, 2011).
The Constitution established the foundation for our government based on federalism; dividing power among the states and national government. The power of dividing or sharing some structure of government is the reversal or opposite of centralized government. When writing the Constitution the founding fathers knew that it was important to leave an acceptable amount of power with the states. They feared a too powerful central government so they chose to adopt the system of federalism as a middle ground. It was the appeal of federalism that allowed state government powers and local traditions, however forming a strong national government that was capable of handling a huge scale of problems (Powers of the Federal Government, 2008).
The Constitution has some exclusive powers, and they share other powers. The constitution gave firm powers to the national government like the power to coin money, raise army, and control interstate commerce. The rest of the power goes to the states, and that includes the police power that allows the states to ratify laws that are necessary to safeguard safety, health, welfare, and moral of the citizens (Powers of the Federal Government, 2008). The criminal justice system is made up of several components: law enforcement, criminal courts, civil courts, and corrections. The legislative, judicial, and executive branches of government make up the basic framework of the system.
Law enforcement operates in the communities, and is a public agency that helps prevent and control crime. They also maintain order, and enforce criminal law. Law enforcement also works with the prosecutors in criminal cases to collect, and gather evidence that is needed to convict a suspect, and gives testimony if there is a trial.
In the criminal court the burden of proof is on the state. The defendant is presumed innocent until proven guilty. If the defendant is found guilty their punishment could include incarceration, death penalty, or fines. A crime is either a felony or misdemeanor. If you are changed with a felony the punishment will be incarceration for a maximum sentence of one year or a fine. For a misdemeanor the sentence is less than a year in a local jail.
In civil court the defendant will not serve any jail, or prison time; however if they are found guilty they will have to pay a monetary or equitable relief to the plaintiff. The judge will order the defendant to pay the plaintiff.
Correctional officers work in state and federal facilities, and are responsible for overseeing inmates while they serve time or await trial. Correctional officers maintain the security, and safety of the inmates as well as the facility. Correctional officers have a huge role in the day of the inmates and the facilities. I use to be a deputy sheriff and there are no differences in the work that is done. We do cell searches; write reports, work with inmate work release programs, and assure that inmates behave in an orderly matter.
In the United State the judicial system is made up of two courts system. There are the federal courts and state courts. Both courts are responsible for hearing different types of cases. The court system may have certain cases that they hear, but they do not work independent of one another as the systems frequently work together. It is the goal of both courts to solve legal disputes, and vindicate legal rights. Although both courts need separate court systems in order to interpret their laws. The state and federal constitutions try to be explicit about the jurisdiction of their separate court systems (United States Courts, 2012).

References

Nghiem, D. (2012). CJUS290 1201A 03 Chat# 2[Chat]. Retrieved January 11, 2012, from
Colorado Technical University Online, Virtual Campus, Criminal Law: https://campus.ctuonline.edu
Erickson, T. (2011). PBAD200 2 130 0 Chat # 3 [Chat]. Retrieved November 22, 2011, from
Colorado Technical University Online, Virtual Campus, American Government: https://campus.ctuonline.edu
Kelly, M. (2011). Overview of United States Government and Politics. Retrieved November 22, 2011, from http://americanhistory.about.com
Three Branches of Government. (2011). United States Government. Retrieved November 23, 2011, from http://www.factormonster.com
Truman Library. (2011). Three Branches of Government. Retrieved November 22, 2011, from http://wwwtrumanlibrary.org
United States Courts. (2012). Understanding Federal and State Courts. Retrieved January 16, 2012, from https://www.uscourts.gov

References: Nghiem, D. (2012). CJUS290 1201A 03 Chat# 2[Chat]. Retrieved January 11, 2012, from Colorado Technical University Online, Virtual Campus, Criminal Law: Kelly, M. (2011). Overview of United States Government and Politics. Retrieved November 22, 2011, from http://americanhistory.about.com Three Branches of Government. (2011). United States Government. Retrieved November 23, 2011, from http://www.factormonster.com Truman Library. (2011). Three Branches of Government. Retrieved November 22, 2011, from http://wwwtrumanlibrary.org United States Courts. (2012). Understanding Federal and State Courts. Retrieved January 16, 2012, from https://www.uscourts.gov

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