Three Branches of Government

In 1787 leaders of the states gathered to write the Constitution –a set of principles that told how the new nation would be governed. The federal convention convened in the states house (Independence Hall) in Philadelphia on May 14, 1787 to revise the Articles of Confederation. Through discussion and debate it became clear by Mid-June that, rather than amend the existing Articles, the convention would draft an entirely new frame of government. All through the summer, in closed sessions, the delegates debated, and redrafted the articles of the New Constitution. Among the chief points at issue were how much power to allow the central government, how many representative in congress to allow each state and how these representatives should be elected. Directly by the people or by the state legislators.
The leaders of the state wanted a strong and fair national government. But they also wanted to protect individual freedoms and prevent the government from abusing its power. They believed they could do this by having three separate branches of government: The Executive, The Legislative and The Judicial. This separation is described in the first three articles, or sections of the constitution.
The legislative branch is made up of two houses of Congress, the Senate and the House of Representatives. The most important duty of the legislative branch is to make Laws. Laws are written, discussed and voted on in congress.
There are 100 senators in the senate, two from each state. Senators are elected by their states and serve six year terms. The Vice President of the U.S is considered the head of the Senate, but does not vote in the senate unless there is a tie. The Senate approves nominations made by the president to the cabinet, Federal courts and other posts. The Senate must ratify all treaties by a two-thirds vote.

There are 435 Representatives in the House of Representatives. The number of representatives each state gets is based on

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