The Spanish Period (1565-1898)
A. SPANISH INFLUENCES ON PHILIPPINE LITERATURE
1. Roman alphabet.
2. The Christian Doctrine
3. The Spanish language
4. European legends and traditions
5. Ancient literature was collected and translated to Tagalog and other dialects. 6. Many grammar books were printed in Filipino, like Tagalog, Ilocano and Visayan 7. Our periodicals during these times gained a religious tone.
B. THE FIRST BOOKS
1. Ang Doctrina Cristiana (The Christian Doctrine). This was the first book printed in the Philippines in 1593 in xylography. It was written by Fr. Juan de Placencia and Fr. Domingo Nieva, in Tagalog and Spanish. 2. Nuestra Señora del Rosario - written by Fr. Blancas de San Jose in 1602, it contains the biographies of saints, novenas, and questions and answers on religion. 3. Libro de los Cuatro Postprimeras de Hombre (in Spanish and Tagalog). This is the first book printed in typography. 4. Ang Barlaan at Josephat. This is a Biblical story printed in the Philippines and translated to Tagalog. 5. The Pasion. This is the book about the life and sufferings of Jesus Christ. It is read only during Lent. 6. Urbana at Felisa. A book by Modesto de Castro. These are letters between two sisters Urbana at Felisa and have influenced greatly the behavior of people in society because the letters dealt with good behavior. 7. Ang Mga Dalit kay Maria (Psalms for Mary). A collection of songs praising the Virgin Mary. It was popular especially during the Maytime “Flores de Mayo” festival.
C. LITERARY COMPOSITIONS
1. Arte y Reglas de la Lengua Tagala (Art and rules of the Tagalog language). 2. Compendio de la Lengua Tagala (Understanding the Tagalog language). 3. Vocabulario de la Lengua Tagala (Tagalog vocabulary
4. Vocabulario de la Lengua Pampanga (Pampanga vocabulary) 5. Vocabulario de la Lengua Bisaya (Bisayan vocabulary)
6. Arte de la Lengua Ilokana (The Art of the Ilocano language) 7. Arte de la Lengua Bicolana (The Art of the Bicol language)
D. FOLK SONGS
– Folk songs became widespread in the Philippines.
E. RECEREATIONAL PLAYS
1. Tibag – the word tibag means to excavate. This ritual was brought here by the Spaniard to remind the people about the search of St. Helena for the Cross on which Jesus died. 2. Lagaylay – this is a special occasion for the Pilareños of Sorsogon during Maytime to get together. 3. Cenaculo – this is a dramatic performance to commemorate the passion and death of Jesus Christ. There are two kinds:
*Cantada - Chanted like passion.
*Hablada - lines are spoken in a more deliberate manner showing the rhythmic measure of each verse and the rhyming in each stanza and is more dignified in theme. 4. Panunuluyan – this is presented before 12:00 on Christmas Eve. This is a presentation of the search of the Virgin Mary and St. Joseph for an inn wherein to deliver the baby Jesus. 5. Salubong (or Panubong) - The Salubong is an Easter play that dramatizes the meeting of the Risen Christ and his Mother. 6. Carillo (Shadow Play) – this is a form of dramatic entertainment performed on a moonless night during a town fiesta or on dark nights after a harvest. 7. Zarzuela - is a musical comedy or melodrama three acts which dealt with man’s passions and emotions like love, hate, revenge, cruelty, avarice or some social or political proble. 8. Sainete – They were exaggerated comedies shown between acts of long plays and were mostly performed by characters from the lower classes. Themes were taken from everyday life scenarios.
F. THE MORO-MORO
– It is presented also on a special stage. This is performed during town fiestas to entertain the people and to remind them of their Christian religion.
– This is a poetic vehicle of a socio-religious nature celebrated during the death of a person
- The Duplo replace the Karagatan. This is a poetic joust in speaking and reasoning. The roles are taken from the Bible and from proverbs and saying. It is usually played during wakes for the dead.
I. THE BALAGTASAN
- This is a poetic joust or a contest of skills in debate on a particular topic or issue. This is replaced the DUPLO and is held to honor Francisco “Balagtas” Baltazar.
J. THE DUNG-AW
- This is a chant in free verse by a bereaved person or his representative beside the corpse of the dead. No definite meter or rhyming scheme is used. The person chanting it freely recites in poetic rhythm according to his feelings, emotions and thoughts
K. THE AWIT and the CORRIDO
- Some use these two interchangeably because distinction is not clear.
The Period of Enlightenment (1872-1898)
A. THE PROPAGANDA MOVEMENT (1872-1896)
DR. JOSE P. RIZAL
His books and writings:
1. Noli Me Tangere - exposed the evils in society.
2. El Filibusterismo - exposed those in the government and in the church. 3. Mi Ultimo Adios (My Last Farewell). This was a poem by Rizal while he was incarcerated at Fort Santiago.
MARCELO H. DEL PILAR
1. Dasalan At Tocsohan (Prayers and Jokes)
2. Sagot Sa Espanya Sa Hibik Ng Pilipinas (Answer to Spain on the Plea of the Filipinos) 3. Dupluhan…dalit…mga Bugtong
GRACIANO LOPEZ JAENA
1. Ang Fray Botod (Friar Botod). He exposed how some of the friars were greedy, ambitious and immoral.
B. THE ACTIVE REVOLUTION
1. Ang Dapat Mabatid Ng Mga Tagalog (What the Tagalogs Should Know). 2. Katungkulang Gagawin Ng Mga Anak Ng Bayan (Obligations of Our Countrymen). 3. Huling Paalam (Last Farewell).
1. Kartilya Ng Katipunan (A primer book on the Katipunan)
2. Liwanag At Dilim (Light and Darkness). A collection of essays on different subjects like freedom, work, faith, government, love of country.
1. El Verdadero Decalogo (The True Decalogue or Ten Commandments). This was his masterpiece and his aim here was to propagate the spirit of nationalism.
NEWSPAPERS DURING THE REVOLUTION
1. HERALDO DE LA REVOLUCION.
2. LA INDEPENDENCIA (Independence).
3. LA REPUBLICA PILIPINA (The Philippine Republic).
4. LA LIBERTAD (Liberty).
Jan Louie Camma Cabrera (
Marie Liza Faller Huerto ( GB!!!