Thinking Skills Critical Thinking And P

Topics: Problem solving, Critical thinking, Reasoning Pages: 52 (8268 words) Published: November 26, 2014
John Butterworth and Geoff Thwaites

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Thinking
Skills

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Critical Thinking and Problem Solving
Second edition

(c) Camrbridge University Press 2013

9781107606302pre_pi-iv.indd i

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CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS
Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town,
Singapore, São Paulo, Delhi, Mexico City
Cambridge University Press
The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK
www.cambridge.org
Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9781107606302
© Cambridge University Press 2005, 2013

First published 2005
Second edition 2013

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This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press.

Printed and bound in the United Kingdom by the MPG Books Group

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A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library ISBN 978-1-107-60630-2 Paperback

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Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate. Information regarding prices, travel timetables and other factual information given in this work is correct at the time of first printing but Cambridge University Press does not guarantee the accuracy of such information thereafter.

(c) Camrbridge University Press 2013

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Contents
Unit 1 Thinking and reasoning
1.1 Thinking as a skill
1.2 An introduction to critical thinking
1.3 Solutions not problems

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Claims, assertions, statements
Judging claims
Argument
Identifying arguments
Analysing arguments
Complex arguments
Conclusions
Reasons
Assumptions
Flaws and fallacies

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2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
2.10

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Unit 2 Critical thinking: the basics
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Unit 3 Problem solving: basic skills

What do we mean by a ‘problem’?
How do we solve problems?
Selecting and using information
Processing data
Finding methods of solution
Solving problems by searching
Recognising patterns
Hypotheses, reasons, explanations and inference
Spatial reasoning
Necessity and sufficiency
Choosing and using models
Making choices and decisions

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3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
3.10
3.11
3.12

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Unit 4 Applied critical thinking
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6

Inference
Explanation
Evidence
Credibility
Two case studies
Critical thinking and science

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Contents

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4.7
4.8
4.9
4.10
4.11

Introducing longer arguments
Applying analysis skills
Critical evaluation
Responding with further argument
A self-assessment

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Unit 5 Advanced problem solving
Combining skills – using imagination
Developing models
Carrying out investigations
Data analysis and inference

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5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4

Unit 6 Problem solving: further techniques
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4

Using other mathematical methods
Graphical methods of solution
Probability, tree diagrams and decision trees
Have you solved it?

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Unit 7 Critical reasoning: Advanced Level

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Conditions and conditionals
Soundness and validity: a taste of logic
Non-deductive reasoning
Reasoning with statistics
Decision making
Principles
An argument under the microscope
Critical writing

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7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8

Answers to assignments
Appendix
Acknowledgements
Index

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Contents

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