think tanks and nigeria's foreign policy

Topics: Policy, Foreign policy, Public policy Pages: 30 (22122 words) Published: October 27, 2014
INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background to the Study In Nigeria, foreign policy decision-making, considered complex, sensitive and dynamic, has been examined by scholars from the angle of the political executive or from the actions of political leaders. Little attention is paid to the other contributing institutions or agencies in foreign policy formulation processes. Although think tanks, otherwise known as policy institutes, work behind the scenes through research to assist government generate meaningful ideas for effective policy formulation, their impact has not been thoroughly investigated or assessed. Government policies and actions would be meaningful if such policies and actions were data based and well informed. They must be based on established facts intelligently assembled and properly interpreted and this can only be achieved by careful enquiry by those well equipped to do so.1 Think tanks affect foreign policy formulation and implementation as they discharge their mandates but the links between these Institutes, Government, Ministries and other organizations involved in foreign policy making are least examined in previous works on Nigerias foreign policy. It is paradoxical that think tanks, as part of the relevant institutions in the foreign policy making processes, where intellectuals and experts combine (mostly behind the scenes) to generate significant inputs for policy formulation, have not been given enough attention. Studies on Nigerias foreign policy have, on many occasions, focused on the individual leaders or regimes rather than on the bureaucracy and other relevant institutions. Studies on Nigerias foreign policy had focused mainly on regime changes.2 However, the role of think tanks in policy formulation and implementation cannot be over emphasized. Meaningful policies, both domestic and foreign, are usually arrived at after thorough studies and adequate planning. Nigerian leaders, in what seems to be their recognition of the importance of think tanks in policy decision-making and implementation, established some policy institutes with the responsibility of providing information and advice to government on various policy areas. In the 1960s and 1970s many think tanks were established such as NISER, NIIA and NIPSS. The Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research, NISER, formerly known as the West African Institute of Social and Economic Research- WAISER was the first think tank established in Nigeria. Each of the think tanks was established for particular reasons. However, some of them have roles relating to foreign policy formulation either directly or indirectly. For instance, the Nigerian Institute of International Affairs- NIIA was established in 1961 to promote the scientific study of international affairs such as international politics, international economic relations, international law and jurisprudence.3 The Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research- NISER was established to conduct research into the economic and social problems of the country with a view to the application of the results to solve social and economic problems. 4 It is important to examine the extent to which these think tanks have been helpful in foreign policy decision-making in Nigeria because no country can survive without interaction with other countries. Also, each country of the world pursues its national interests while relating with other countries. Those interests include the promotion of its peoples welfare, economic wealth, political stability and social advancement. This study examines how far the NIIA has been able to influence Nigerias foreign policy through it activities and in what ways its research has affected foreign policy decisions over the years. Are the findings of the Institute applied in foreign policy decisions This is a matter of concern because much is not known about the roles of the Institute and its relationship with the government, ministries and...

Bibliography: BOOKS Adeniran Tunde (1983), Introduction to International Relations. Ibadan Macmillan Nigeria Publishers Limited. Adesola Funsho (2004), International Relations An Introductory Text. Ibadan, College Press and Publishers. Akinyemi Bolaji(1983), A Farewell to Policy. NIIA, Monograph Lecture Series, No 35 Akinyemi Bolaji (2002), Seagull The Perception of Others. Lagos, Macmillan Nigeria Publishers Ltd. Assisi Asobie H. (1991), Decision Making Models Revisited An Analysis of the Application of Theories and Models of Foreign Policy Decision Making to the Study of Nigerias Foreign Policy in Olusanya G. O. and Akindele R. A. (ed) (1991), The Structures and Process of Foreign Policy Decision Making and Implementation in Nigeria 1960-1990. NIIA. Banjo A. O (1986), Nigerian Institute of International Affairs 1961-86 the Story So Far. (Lagos, NIIA monograph series No. 12 PG 2-3.) Barber James and Smith Michael (1974), The Nature of Foreign Policy A Reader. Great Britain Holmes McDougall in Association with the Open University Press. Chandler, R. C. and Plano, J. C (1988), The Public Administration Dictionary. England ABC-CLIO. Donald Abelson E (1996), American Think Tanks and their Roles in US Foreign Policy. New York, St. Martins Press. Donald Abelson E (2002), Do Think Tanks Matter Assessing the Impact of Public Policy Institutes. New York St. Martins Press. Egonmwan, J. A (1991), Public Policy Analysis Concepts and Applications. Benin City S.M.O. Aka and Brothers Press Fawole Alade (2004), Understanding Nigerias Foreign Policy Under Civilian Rule Since 1999 Ibadan, College Press Publishers Ltd. Frankel Joseph (1967), The Making of Foreign Policy An analysis of Decision-Making. London Oxford University Press Holsti K. J (1977), International Politics A Framework for Analysis, 3rd Edition, Englewood Cliff, New Jersey, Prentice Hall, Inc. Jenkins W. K (1978), Policy Analysis A Political and Organizational Perspective. Martin Robertson. Keith R. Legg and James Morrison (1971), Politics and the International System, New York Happer and Row cited in Ojo Olusola and Sesay Amadu (2002), Concepts in International Relations. Ile-Ife, Clean print Publishers Lindblom, C. E (1963), The Policy Making Process New Jersey Prentice-Hall, Inc. Englewood Cliffs. Lowi T (1964), American Business, Public Policy, Case Studies and Political Theory. World Politics. 16, NO. 14 Major General Joe Garba. (1987) Diplomatic Soldiering. Spectrum Books Ltd. Ibadan Nweke Aforka (1980), The Domestic Structure and Processes of Nigerias Foreign Policy, Boston, African Studies Center, Boston University. Ofoegbu Ray (1980), Foundation Course in International Relations for African Universities. London, George Allen and Unwin. Ogwu Joy (1966), Nigerian Foreign Policy Alternative Futures. Lagos, NIIA, Macmillan Nigeria. Ogwu Joy (2005), Think Tanks in Foreign Policy- the NIIA in New Horizon for Nigeria in World Affairs, Lagos, NIIA Ojo Olusola and Sesay Amadu (2002) Concepts in International Relations Ile-Ife, Clean Print Publishers Page 122 Ola Joseph Toyin (1999), The Concept and Practice of International Relations Ibadan, Joytal Printing Press Olaniyi Johnson O (1997), Introduction to Contemporary Political Analysis, Ilorin, Tim-Sal Nig. Enterprises. Olaniyi Johnson O (1998), Foundation of Public Policy Analysis. Ibadan. SUNAD Publishers Ltd. Olusanya G. O, Ate B, Olukoshi Bayo (eds) (1988), Economic Development and Foreign Policy. Lagos, NIIA. Olusanya G. O. (1991) Research and Public Policy an Explanatory Note on the Contribution of the Nigerian Institute of International Affairs to the Making of Nigerias Foreign Policy in Olusanya G. O. and Akindele R. A. (ed) (1991), The Structures and Process of Foreign Policy Decision Making and Implementation in Nigeria 1960-1990. NIIA. Robert G. and Edward A (1991), A Dictionary of Political Analysis. London, Edward Arnold. Smith, James Allen (1991), The Idea Brokers Think Tanks and the Rise of the New Policy Elite. New York Maxwell Macmillan International. Sprout, Harold and Margaret. (1957) Environmental Factors in the study if International Politics. Michigan Journal of Conflicts Resolution vol. 1, No. 1 Varma S. P (1982), Modern Political Theory, New Delhi, Vikas Publishing House PVT Ltd. Wade L. L (1972), The Element of Public Policy. Columbus Ohio Charles E. Merrill Publishing Comp. LECTURES Olusanya G. O Whither Nigerias Foreign Policy, (Lecture delivered at the inauguration of the International Politics Association of Lagos State University on 6th June 1987). Olusanya G. O Foreign Policy in a Period of Declining Fortune Some Suggestions, (Lecture delivered on the platform of the Faculty of Social Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-ife, on 28 March, 1988) SEMINARS Dally Sabina (2002), Think Tanks (Unpublished Seminar Paper), Center for Philanthropy Studies, Indiana University Dunmoye Ayo Dimension of National Power, (Unpublished Seminar Paper), Page 1 Wilberforce Hinjari 1986, Towards An Explanation of Nigerian Foreign Policy, A paper presented at the Annual Seminar of Political Science Association. Unilorin. THESIS Awojuola Theophilus Aiyeyemi (1985), Nigeria Foreign Policy Channels Voice of Nigeria as a Case Study. (Unpublished Thesis), Department of Political Science, University of Ibadan. Ibadan. SPEECH Alhaji Sheu Shagari (Speech Delivered at the NIIA Annual Dinner), November 20 1980. JOURNALS Nigerian forum The Bi-Monthly Journal of the Nigerian Institute of International Affairs. May-June 2002. Vol. 23, No. 5-6 BROCHURES NISER Brochure 1996 INTERNET SOURCES Kent R. Weaver and James G. Mcgann (2002), Think Tanks and Civil Societies Catalysts for Ideas and Actions. http//library.austin.cc.tx.us/w3/GOV/govtank.htm. (Snapshot) HYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Think_tank http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Think_tank. (Snapshot) HYPERLINK mailtocipe@cipe.org cipe@cipe.org. NEWSPAPERS/MAGAZINES The Guardian, August 19, 2002. The Guardian. December 15,1986 p.8 The Guardian. November 17,1988 p.1 The Guardian. November 22, 1988. INTERVIEWS Professor Osita Eze (Director General) Nigerian Institute of International Affairs (NIIA) Professor Joy Ogwu (Former DG NIIA) Alex Ekeanyanwu NIIA (Personal Assistant to Director General) Director of Research NIIA Professor Bukarambe NIIA (Research Department) Professor Ogba Oche NIIA (Research Department) Dr. Dokubo Charles NIIA (Research Department) Dr. Nwogwu Kelechi NIIA (Research Department) Dr. Agwu Osita NIIA (Research Department) Mrs. Antonia NIIA Library Dr. Sanusi Olatunde NIIA (Administrative Staff) Mr. Akpan Benjamin NIIA (Clerical Assistant/Library) Mr. Sola Omotola (Foreign Service Academy/Ministry of Foreign Affairs) Dr. Antonia Simbine NISER (Director) Political Development Department Mr. Okechukwu Azubike NISER Political Development Department Dr. Charles Ukeje Obafemi Awolowo university Dr. Kehinde Olayode Obafemi Awolowo university Mr. Olu Adekola Obafemi Awolowo university OTHER SOURCES Dickson Paul Think Tanks (1971), in Lexicon Universal Encyclopedia 1989, Vol. 19, Lexicon Publications Inc, New York, N. Y. see also, Academic American Encyclopedia 1989. Grolier Incorporated. Danbury, Connecticut. Decree No. 35 Nigerian Institute of International Affairs Decree 1971 in Federal Republic of Nigeria Official Gazette, NO. 42, Vol. 58, Lagos, 19 August 1971 Section 3 (a). Nigerian Institute of International Affairs Annual Report, Lagos, NIIA, 1972/73 and 1973/74 Nigerian Institute of International Affairs Decree 1977, Decree No. 45 1 Olusanya G. O. (1991) Research and Public Policy an Explanatory Note on the Contribution of the Nigerian Institute of International Affairs to the Making of Nigerias Foreign Policy in Olusanya G. O. and Akindele R. A. (ed) (1991), The Structures and Process of Foreign Policy Decision Making and Implementation in Nigeria 1960-1990. Lagos, NIIA. 2 Assisi H. Asobie (1991), Decision Making Models Revisited An Analysis of the Application of Theories and Models of Foreign Policy Decision Making to the Study of Nigerias Foreign Policy in Olusanya G. O. and Akindele R. A. (ed) (1991), The Structures and Process of Foreign Policy Decision Making and Implementation in Nigeria 1960-1990. Lagos, NIIA. 3 Nigerian Forum (2002). The Nigerian Institute of International Affairs, May-June, Vol. 23, Nos. 5-6 4 NISER Brochure (1996) 5 Olaniyi O. Johnson (1998) Foundation of Public Policy Analysis, Ibadan, SUNAD Publishers Ltd 6 Barber James and Smith Michael, (1974) The Nature of Foreign Policy A Reader. Great Britain Holmes McDougall in Association with the Open University Press. 7 Frankel Joseph (1967), The Making of Foreign Policy An analysis of Decision-Making, London Oxford University Press 8 Dunmoye Ayo, Dimension of National Power, unpublished paper, page 1 9 Olaniyi O. Johnson ibid. 10 Lindblom, C.E (1963), The Policy Making Process New Jersey Prentice-Hall, Inc. Englewood Cliffs. 11 Ojo Olusola and Sesay Amadu (2002), Concepts in International Relations. Ile-Ife, Clean print Publishers Page 122 12 Sprout, Harold and Margaret (1957), Environmental Factors in the study if International Politics. Michigan Journal of Conflicts Resolution vol. 1, No. 1 13 Egonmwan, J.A (1991), Public Policy Analysis Concepts and Applications. Benin City S.M.O. Aka and Brothers Press 14 Chandler, R. C. and Plano, J. C (1988), The Public Administration Dictionary. England ABC-CLIO. 15 Chandler, R. C. and Plano op. cit. 16 Adeniran T (1983), Introduction to International Relations. Ibadan Macmillan Nigeria Publishers Limited. 17 HYPERLINK http//library.austin.cc.tx.us/w3/GOV/govtank.htm http//library.austin.cc.tx.us/w3/GOV/govtank.htm (Snapshot) 18 Donald E. Abelson (1996), American Think Tanks and their Roles in US Foreign Policy. New York, St. Martins Press. 19 Robert G. and Edward A (1991), A Dictionary of Political Analysis. London, Edward Arnold. 20 Jenkins W. K (1978), Policy Analysis A Political and Organizational Perspective. Martin Robertson. 21 Olaniyi Johnson (1998), Foundations of Public Policy Analysis. Ibadan, SUNAD Publishers. 22 Chandler and Plano ibid. 23 Adesola Funso (2004), International Relations An Introductory Text. Ibadan, College Press and Publishers. 24 Keith R. Legg and James Morrison (1971), Politics and the International System, New York Happer and Row cited in Ojo Olusola and Sesay Amadu (ibid). 25 Ola Joseph Toyin (1999), The Concept and Practice of International Relations. Ibadan, Joytal Printing Press. 26 Adeniran Tunde (1983), Introduction to International Relations. Ibadan, Macmillan Press. 27 Ofoegbu Ray (1980), Foundation Course in International Relations for African Universities. London. George Allen and Unwin. 28 Wilberforce Hinjari (1986), Towards An Explanation of Nigerian Foreign Policy, A paper presented at the Annual Seminar of Political Science Association. Unilorin. 29 Ola Joseph Toyin (ibid) 30 Fawole W. Alade (2004), Understanding Nigerias Foreign Policy under Civilian Rule Since 1999. Ibadan, College Press Publishers Ltd. 31 Ojo Olusola and Sesay Amadu (ibid) 32 Adeniran Tunde (ibid) 33 Frankel Joseph (ibid) 34 Holsti K. J (1977), International Politics A Framework for Analysis, 3rd Edition, Englewood Cliff, New Jersey, Prentice Hall, Inc. 35 Olaniyi O. Johnson (1998), ibid 36 Fawole W. Alade (2004), ibid 37 Dickson Paul Think Tanks (1971) in Lexicon Universal Encyclopedia (1989), Vol. 19, Lexicon Publications Inc, New York, N. Y. see also Academic American Encyclopedia (1989). Grolier Incorporated. Danbury, Connecticut. 38 Dickson Paul op.cit 39 Donald E. Abelson (1996), American Think Tanks and Their Role in US Foreign Policy. New York St. Martins Press, 40 Dally Sabina (2002), Think Tanks (Unpublished Seminar Paper), Center for Philanthropy Studies, Indiana University 41 Smith, James Allen (1991), The Idea Brokers Think Tanks and the Rise of the New Policy Elite. New York Maxwell Macmillan International. 42 Nweke Aforka (1980), The Domestic Structure and Processes of Nigerias Foreign Policy. Boston, African Studies Center, Boston University. 43 Ogwu Joy (1966), Nigerian Foreign Policy Alternative Futures. Lagos, NIIA, Macmillan Nigeria. 44 Alhaji Sheu Shagari (Speech Delivered at the NIIA annual Dinner), November 20 1980. 45 Akinyemi A. B (1983), A Farewell to Policy. NIIA, Monograph Lecture Series, No 35 46 Charles Ukeje (Personal Interview) 47 Robert G. and Edward, A (1991), ibid 48 Olaniyi O. Johnson (1997), Introduction to Contemporary Political Analysis, Ilorin, Tim-Sal (Nig.) Enterprises. 49 Varma S. P (1982), Modern Political Theory, New Delhi, Vikas Publishing House PVT Ltd. 50 Olaniyi O. Johnson (1997), (ibid.116). 1 Smith, James Allen (1991) The Idea Brokers Think Tanks and the Rise of the New Policy Elite. New York Maxwell Macmillan International. 2 Dokubo Charles NIIA (Personal Interview) 3 Donald E. Abelson (1996) American Think Tanks and Their Role in US Foreign Policy. New York, St. Martins Press 4 Donald E Abelson (2002) Do Think Tanks Matter Assessing the Impact of Public Policy Institutes. New York St. Martins Press. 5 NISER brochure, (1996) 6 Banjo A. O (1986) Nigerian Institute of International Affairs 1961-86 the Story So Far. (Lagos, NIIA monograph series No. 12 PG 2-3.) 7 Decree No. 35, Nigerian Institute of International Affairs Decree 1971 in Federal Republic of Nigeria Official Gazette, NO. 42, Vol. 58, Lagos, 19 August 1971 Section 3 (a). 8 Decree 35, (op cit) 9 The Nigerian Institute of International Affairs Decree No. 45 of 1977 10 Olusanya G. O (1991) Research and Public policy An explanatory Note on the Role of the Nigerian Institute of International Affairs to the Making of Nigerias Foreign Policy. in G. O. Olusanya and R. A. Akindele (eds) (1991) The Structure and Process of Foreign Policy Making and Implementation in Nigeria, 1960-1990. Lagos, NIIA. 11 Nigerian Forum The Bi-Monthly Journal of the Nigerian Institute of International Affairs. May June 2002. Vol. 23, No. 5-6 12 Donald E. Abelson ibid 13 Donald E. Abelson op.cit 14 Kent R. Weaver and James G. Mcgann (2002) Think Tanks and Civil Societies Catalysts for Ideas and Actions. (http//library.austin.cc.tx.us/w3/GOV/govtank.htm) 15 Dally Sabina (2002) Think Tanks (Unpublished Seminar Paper), Center for Philanthropy studies, Indiana University. 1 Donald E. Abelson (1996) American Think Tanks and Their Role in US Foreign Policy. New York, St. Martins Press 2 Donald E. Abelson (op.cit) 3 Charles Ukeje (Personal Interview) 4 Dokubo Charles NIIA (Personal Interview) 5 Osita Eze D. G. NIIA (Personal Interview) 6 Director of Research, NIIA (Personal Interview) 7 Sanusi Olatunde NIIA (Personal Interview) 8 Awojuola Theophilus Aiyeyemi (1985) Nigeria Foreign Policy Channels Voice of Nigeria as a Case Study. (Unpublished Thesis), Department of Political Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan 9 Osita Eze D. G. NIIA (Personal Interview) 10 Akinyemi A. B (2002) Seagull The Perception of Others. Lagos, Macmillan Nigeria Publishers Ltd. 11 Olusanya G. O (1991) Research and Public Policy an Explanatory Note on the Contribution of the Nigerian Institute of International Affairs to the Making of Nigerias Foreign Policy in Olusanya G. O. and Akindele R. A. (ed) (1991) The Structures and Process of Foreign Policy Decision Making and Implementation in Nigeria 1960-1990. NIIA. 12 Olusanya G. O. op.cit 13 Awojuola Theophilus A ibid 14 Olusanya G. O.(1991) ibid 15 Ogwu Joy (2005) Think tanks in foreign policy The NIIA in New Horizon for Nigeria in World Affairs. Lagos, NIIA. 16 Ogwu Joy (2005) op.cit 17 Dally Sabina (2002) Think Tanks (Unpublished Seminar Paper), Center for Philanthropy Studies, Indiana University 18 Joy Ogwu (Personal Interview) 19 Ogwu Joy (2005) ibid 20 Osita Eze DG NIIA (Personal Interview) 21 Dokubo Charles NIIA (Personal interview) 22 Akinyemi A. B (1983) A Farewell to Policy Lagos, NIIA. (Monograph Lecture Series No. 35, Pg 3). 23 Osita Eze D .G. NIIA (Personal Interview) 24 Olusanya G. O, Ate B, Olukoshi Bayo (eds) (1988) Economic Development and Foreign Policy Lagos, NIIA. 25 Olusanya G. O Foreign Policy in Declining Fortune Some Suggestions (Lecture delivered on the platform of the Faculty of Social Science, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, on 28th March 1988). 26 Olusanya G. O Whither Nigerias Foreign Policy (Lecture delivered at the inauguration of the International Politics Association of Lagos State University on 6th June 1987). 27 Akinyemi A. B (1983) A Farewell to Policy. Lagos, NIIA (Monograph Lecture Series No. 35, Pg 3). 28 Akinyemi A. B (1983) op.cit 30 Awojuola Theophilus Aiyeyemi (1985) Nigeria Foreign Policy Channels Voice of Nigeria as a case study. (Unpublished Thesis), Department of Political Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan. 31 Osita Eze D. G NIIA (Personal Interview) 32 Sanusi Olatunde NIIA (Personal Interview) 33 Charles Dokubo NIIA (Personal Interview) 34 Olatunde Sanusi NIIA (Personal Interview) 6 Nwogwu Kelechi NIIA (Personal Interview) 7 Osita Eze D. G. NIIA (Personal Interview) 8 HYPERLINK mailtocipe@cipe.org cipe@cipe.org. 9 Major General Joe Garba (1987) Diplomatic Soldiering. Spectrum Books Ltd. Ibadan 10 Major General Joe Garba op.cit 11 Olusanya G. O Foreign Policy in a Period of Declining Fortune Some Suggestions. (Lecture delivered on the platform of the Faculty of Social Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-ife, on 28 March, 1988) 12 Ogwu Joy (2005) Think Tanks in Foreign Policy- the NIIA in New Horizon for Nigeria in World Affairs, Lagos, NIIA PAGE PAGE 86
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